Monday, September 30, 2019

Psychodynamic vs Behaviourist Theory

Psychology is not just philosophical speculation and reasoning over the years it has evolved and it is now also recognised as a science, to understand what psychology is all about it is necessary to know it’s origins and the theorist who brought it out of obscurity, Sigmund Freud. He developed the Psychodynamic or Psychoanalytical perspective to enable better understanding of human behaviour these concepts will be discussed further later in this study. After Freud opened the gateway other perspectives and approaches have been developed, now with five main areas of psychology – Cognitive, Behaviourist, Biopsychology and Humanist approaches. For a comparison with the Psychodynamic theory, Behaviourist Theory will be discussed. Psychodynamic theory is referred to in psychological literature more than any other. This is the stereotypical psychology – looking into your past, discovering hidden desires, rummaging through the unconscious. It is the most radical of the five theories, and by far the most criticised – accused of being sexist, seeing the human population as ill, and considering sex and hostility as the only motivation for human actions. However, this theory has proven to be one of the most influential forces in the twentieth century. Sigmund Freud believed that humans are driven from birth by two innate instincts Eros the life instinct – the self-preserving and erotic instinct and Thanatos the death instinct – the self destructive, aggression and cruelty instinct. These are controlled by a free floating sexual energy, the libido and is seen to be the single most important motivating force in adult life, driven from birth to enhance bodily pleasure. There is a lot more to the mind than meets the eye, much like an iceberg – only the very tip is showing. He is the one who came up with the concept of one's unconscious – the part of the mind where desires and memories are stored, unrecognised, only hinted at through dreams or slips of the tongue or the ‘Freudian slip’ as it is more widely known. Rallying between the conscious and unconscious are the id, ego, and superego – separate and conflicting forces, requiring a balance for mental health and normal behaviour. The id is a person's animal force, their need to satisfy basic psychological needs. The superego is the ‘ideal' force, the civilised, competent figure the person strives to be. The ego sort of regulates the two, keeping the id satisfied while staying within the guidelines of the superego. The strength of each individual force is a factor in personality – if a person's superego is too strong, they are seen as rigid and guilty. If a person's id is too strong, they are seen as delinquent and antisocial (Boeree, 2000). The psychodynamic theory also established the idea that what happens in a person's childhood is one of the most important factors in personality development, especially traumatic experiences. The theory states that children who go through such things repress their memories, and this is the cause of adulthood mental disease. In order to further understand how personalities are shaped during childhood, Freud thought up the psychosexual stages. This shows the development of the id and the establishment of pleasure-sensitive areas known as erogenous zones. This also brings about the idea of fixations. Such things are developed in the Oral stage of a child’s development from birth to eighteen months where the mouth is the source of nourishment and pleasure an example of this is seen in a nursing infant and if deprived of nourishment will fixate their pleasure seeking energies on this stage, the need to constantly stimulate the mouth through smoking, biting and chewing. The next is the Anal stage between eighteen and thirty-six months focus on bladder and bowl elimination and is seen as a source of pleasure when the child is able to control them, this is why toilet training usually happens around this age and if not mastered an adult would be seen to be anal expulsive or anal retentive. Phallic stage between age three and five years where sexual energy is focused on the genitals. Oedipus and Electra complex in which the child unconsciously wishes to posses the parent of the opposite sex and rid themselves of the parent of the same sex. The result of this desire in boys would experience castration anxiety which would drive them to identify with their fathers. If there is no male figure in this stage of a child’s development it is thought that the child will have problems with authority figures later in life as he has never had the chance to conclude this stage. Freud’s explanation for the female development claiming that they would experience penis envy (a realisation they do not have a penis) they would eventually overcome by achieving motherhood and having their own baby. Latency stage from six years through puberty here the child will develop their confidence and mastery of the world around them. He believed that during this stage their experiences and excitations of previous stages are repressed and children develop infantile amnesia being unable to remember much of their earlier years. The Genital stage from twelve years upwards to adulthood is the culmination of the psychosexual development and the fixing of sexual energy in the genitals. This eventually directs humans towards sexual intercourse and the beginnings of the next cycle of life (Breger, 2009). John Watson a theorist who rejected the idea of introspection and every part of the psychodynamic theory, suggested the Behaviourist view is an objective, experimental branch of natural science who are interested in prediction and control of behaviour, most of the early research was carried out on animals before moving onto humans. This is an approach that believes people are born ‘Tabula rasa’ literally meaning ‘blank slate’, that all human behaviour is infinitely plastic and therefore is ultimately explainable in terms of the experiences that an organism goes through rather than any genetic predisposition of characteristics that the organism possesses. The relationship between the environment and the organism is seen as a straight line, in that the organisms act on their environment, which in turn provides rewards and punishments to determine the future probability of a response occurring. Behaviours are acquired or learned in one of two main ways, these are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Examples of classical conditioning applied to real life are things like, taste aversion, learned emotions, advertising and development of phobias. Use of operant conditioning is referred to as behaviour modification such as in a classroom or therapy settings (Wyman, 2005). Watson suggests that children have three basic emotions, fear, rage and love and attempted to prove that these emotions could be artificially conditioned. The experiment of Little Albert is his most famous and controversial experiment, Watson and a graduate assistant named Rosalie Rayner conditioned a small child to fear a white rat. They accomplished this by repeatedly pairing the white rat with a loud, frightening clanging noise. They were also able to demonstrate that this fear could be generalized to other white, furry objects. The ethics of the experiment are often criticized today, especially because the child's fear was never deconditioned. Another example of classical conditionning is Ian Pavlov ‘Dogs’, in this experiment he noted that dogs would salivate before the delivery of food. In a series of well-known experiments, he presented a variety of stimuli before the presentation of food, eventually finding that, after repeated association, a dog would salivate (response) to the presence of a stimulus (noise) other than food (Bitterman, 2006). The most influential of all behaviourists is B F Skinner he is famous for his research on operant conditioning and negative reinforcement. He developed a device called the ‘cumulative recorder’ which showed rates of responding as a sloped line. Using this device, he found that behaviour did not depend on the preceding stimulus as Watson and Pavlov maintained. Instead, Skinner found that behaviours were dependent upon what happens after the response, therefore, using positive and negative reinforcement responses can be conditioned to a stimulus, those that are rewarded will increase and those that are not will decrease (Rubin, 2003). Not unlike other perspectives Behaviourism has gone through many transformations in the years since is conception by John Watson, one of the recent extensions in this approach has been the development of Social Learning theory. This theory is most relevant to criminology. Bandura suggests that we learn through observation, imitation and modelling of a significant other, people learn through the outcome of those behaviours and later a person will form an idea which serves as a guide for action. A significant other could be someone one aspires to become, not necessarily family, it could be someone famous for instance. If a person sees another being rewarded or punished for a certain behaviour they may or may not copy that behaviour, what is seen as a punishment or reward for one person may not be for another. However, if it is a person they aspire to be children in particular tend to emulate this behaviour either good or bad. Part of this study was the ‘Bobo doll’ experiment, he demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviours they have observed in other people. The children observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed (Green, 2003). Psychology has changed its face over the many years since Freud first introduced the psychodynamic theory putting forward a different way of trying to understand why people behave the way they do, moving onto the Behaviourist approach which completely refutes Freud’s theory by refusing to accept that people are born with natural innate instincts and that consciousness is the subject matter of psychology, who believe that psychology is about behaviour and activities and that the consciousness is not definable. They leave a huge gaping whole in their theory relating to perception, sensations, memories and imagination. Whereas Freud simply focused on his masculinity and the inferiority of the female population, although he can be forgiven for this as his theory came about in the Victorian era and this theory was a major breakthrough in history and is still one of the biggest thinkers and without whom psychologists and the like would not know as much about ourselves as people do. References Breger, L. (2009). From Instinct to Identity: The Development of Personality. 1st ed. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. 1-18. Grieve, K. (2006). A student's A-Z of Psychology. 1st ed. California: Juta Academic. Hayes, N. (1993). A first course in Psychology. 12th ed. Cheltenham: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Bitterman, M. (2006). Classical Conditioning since Pavlov. Review of General Psychology. 10 (4), 365-375. Wyman, R. (2005). Experimental anaylasis of nature-nurture interactions. JEZ. 03A (6), 415-421. Boeree, G. (2000). Freud and Psychoanalysis. Available: http://webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/psychoanalysis. html#Johann_Reil. Last accessed 10 November 2010 Geen, C. (2003). Transmission of aggression through immitation of aggressive models. Available: http://psychclassics. asu. edu/Bandura/bobo. htm. Last accessed 10 Nov 2010. Rubin, J. (2003). From Pavlov to Skinner Box. Available: http://www. juliantrubin. com/bigten/skinnerbox. html. Last accessed 10 November 2010

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Biochemistry involves Essay

Biochemistry involves the study of biological processes and chemical analysis which include living organism’s reactions, chemical compounds and elements. Historically, biochemistry gained prominence in the early 20th century when research on origin of living organisms began, various forms of scientific methods where used toward the success the makeup, several questions raised where; how biochemists seek to know how the brain works, the effectiveness of molecular compounds on the immune system. Furthermore, they are interested in cellular replication, differentiation and the interconnecting relationship between cells and organs. They deal with the chemical explanation of inheritance (traits, character, etc. ) and disease. Apart from this, biochemist also determines how certain molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, vitamins and hormones function and their involvement in metabolic processes. Mostly on regulation of chemical reactions in living cells because this shows the complex chemical reactions that occur in a wide variety of life forms. It provides the basis for advancement of medicine practically such as veterinary medicine, agriculture science and biotechnology and exciting new fields such as molecular genetics, bioengineering etc. The developed knowledge and methods are applied to in all fields of medicine, agriculture, chemical and health related industries. Biochemistry also provides a unique research on protein structures and functions, genetic engineering and the two basic components of the rapidly expanding field of biotechnology. Being the vastest of all biological sciences, biochemistry has many fields namely neurochemistry, bio-organic chemistry, immunochemistry, physical biochemistry, molecular genetics, biochemical pharmacology and clinical biochemistry. Recent progress in these areas have developed a relationship between technology, chemical engineering, computer engineering. Reference: †¢ Biochemistry. (2008). ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy. Retrieved April 07, 2008 from http://www. iscid. org/encyclopedia/Biochemistry †¢ Mendoza, H. M. , Shen, L. N. , Botting, C. , Lewis, A. , Chen, J. , Ink, B. , et al. (2003). NEDP1, a highly conserved cysteine protease that deNEDDylates Cullins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, 25637-25643.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Data Case

Group Project Berk DeMarzo Data Case chapter 10 1. Collect price information for each stock from Yahoo! Finance Professor has provided it for us. The specific data of question 2-4 is in the appendix. We only include the functions and simple answers below every question. 2. Return=(P2-P1)/P1 3. mean monthly returns, standard deviations for the monthly returns and annual statistics Ticker| AAPL| ADM| BA| C| CAT| DE| HSY| MOT| PG| SIRI| WMT| YHOO| Mean| 8. 39%| 3. 70%| 2. 68%| -0. 26%| 2. 87%| 3. 40%| 0. 43%| 0. 48%| 1. 25%| 3. 34%| 0. 69%| 2. 22%| SD| 0. 1584| 0. 1050| 0. 0697| 0. 0709| 0. 0742| 0. 0867| 0. 0491| 0. 934| 0. 0455| 0. 1963| 0. 0477| 0. 1299| Annual Mean| 1. 0068| 0. 4444| 0. 3215| -0. 0315| 0. 3444| 0. 4077| 0. 0519| 0. 0576| 0. 1505| 0. 4010| 0. 0827| 0. 2660| Annual SD| 0. 5489| 0. 3638| 0. 2414| 0. 2457| 0. 2569| 0. 3002| 0. 1702| 0. 3236| 0. 1577| 0. 6800| 0. 1654| 0. 4499| 4. Monthly return to an equally weighted portfolio of these 12 stocks. The mean and standard d eviation of monthly returns for the equally weighted portfolio. | Mean| Mean| 0. 0389| Standard Deviation| 0. 0925| Annual Mean| 0. 4671| Annual SD| 0. 3204| 5. Standard deviation (volatility) on the x-axis and average return on the y-axis Solution: 6.What do you notice about the volatilities of the individual stocks, compared to the volatility of the equally weighted portfolio? Solution: The volatilities of the individual stocks are mostly bigger than the volatility of the equally weighted portfolio that implies the portfolio tends to have more stability and less risk than the individual stocks themselves. Appendix Date| AAPL return| ADM return| BA return| C return| CAT return| DE return| HSY return| MOT return| PG return| SIRI return| WMT return| YHOO return| Mean| Apr-03| 26. 30| 8. 63| 13. 06| 5. 02| -0. 88| -0. 82| 9. 48| 7. 79| 2. 19| 116. 22| -6. 57| 20. 42| 16. 4| May-03| 6. 12| 7. 49| 11. 92| 4. 35| 6. 74| 5. 17| -2. 03| 11. 19| -2. 87| 5. 62| 2. 17| 9. 58| 5. 45| Jun-03| 1 0. 60| 2. 06| -3. 50| 5. 47| 21. 96| 11. 07| 4. 52| -4. 20| -0. 96| 5. 33| 4. 17| -4. 83| 4. 31| Jul-03| 7. 31| 6. 07| 13. 45| -3. 23| 6. 45| 11. 29| -3. 46| 18. 75| -0. 65| -5. 62| 5. 85| 7. 26| 5. 29| Aug-03| -8. 40| -5. 48| -8. 18| 4. 98| -4. 16| -5. 25| 3. 98| 11. 76| 6. 32| 8. 33| -5. 62| 5. 99| 0. 36| Sep-03| 10. 42| 9. 41| 12. 12| 4. 94| 6. 96| 13. 69| 6. 09| 13. 23| 6. 42| 29. 12| 5. 71| 23. 52| 11. 80| Oct-03| -8. 65| 0. 00| 0. 18| -0. 78| 3. 77| 1. 00| 1. 29| 3. 81| -2. 10| -11. 49| -5. 61| -1. 60| -1. 8| Nov-03| 2. 30| 6. 53| 9. 79| 3. 21| 9. 18| 6. 62| -0. 92| 0. 00| 3. 78| 51. 92| -4. 49| 4. 70| 7. 72| Dec-03| 5. 52| 2. 88| -0. 94| 2. 76| -5. 46| -3. 77| -1. 92| 18. 41| 1. 67| -14. 56| 1. 50| 4. 35| 0. 87| Jan-04| 6. 03| 10. 37| 4. 28| 1. 59| -3. 05| 2. 60| 10. 30| 11. 30| 1. 42| 8. 89| 10. 60| -5. 62| 4. 89| Feb-04| 13. 04| -1. 97| -5. 30| 2. 86| 4. 39| 8. 37| -0. 06| -4. 40| 2. 31| 15. 65| 0. 44| 9. 34| 3. 72| Mar-04| -4. 66| 4. 08| 3. 95| -6. 20| -1. 25| -1. 83| 7. 2 9| 3. 72| 1. 35| -2. 94| -4. 50| 4. 21| 0. 27| Apr-04| 8. 84| -4. 85| 7. 79| -3. 45| -3. 05| -3. 46| 0. 26| 8. 28| 1. 93| -9. 09| -2. 01| 21. 38| 1. 8| May-04| 15. 97| 0. 92| 11. 54| 0. 13| 5. 42| 7. 21| 4. 30| -7. 47| 0. 97| 2. 67| -5. 78| 18. 72| 4. 55| Jun-04| -0. 61| -8. 04| -0. 66| -4. 30| -7. 01| -10. 44| 4. 69| -12. 76| -3. 75| -18. 51| 0. 95| -15. 38| -6. 32| Jul-04| 6. 68| 3. 95| 3. 32| 5. 64| -1. 08| 0. 70| 0. 14| 1. 42| 7. 31| -7. 57| -0. 39| -7. 44| 1. 06| Aug-04| 12. 35| 6. 37| -1. 16| -5. 29| 10. 65| 2. 52| -3. 25| 11. 99| -3. 31| 37. 93| 0. 99| 18. 94| 7. 39| Sep-04| 35. 19| 14. 02| -3. 33| 1. 51| 0. 62| -7. 41| 8. 50| -4. 34| -4. 98| 21. 88| 1. 37| 6. 72| 5. 81| Oct-04| 27. 98| 9. 89| 7. 77| 0. 86| 13. 69| 19. 98| 2. 63| 11. 61| 4. 50| 70. 00| -3. 46| 3. 5| 14. 12| Nov-04| -3. 97| 5. 24| -3. 35| 7. 65| 6. 51| 4. 12| 7. 24| -0. 06| 2. 98| 14. 93| 1. 71| 0. 16| 3. 60| Dec-04| 19. 41| 8. 46| -2. 28| 1. 81| -8. 22| -6. 67| 5. 30| -8. 50| -2. 92| -13. 12| -0. 78| -6. 56| -1. 17| Jan-05| 16. 67| -0. 09| 9. 15| -1. 85| 6. 66| 2. 40| 8. 10| -0. 47| -0. 27| -15. 86| -1. 51| -8. 35| 1. 22| Feb-05| -7. 11| 2. 01| 6. 35| -5. 82| -3. 79| -5. 16| -4. 03| -4. 19| -0. 17| 0. 90| -2. 62| 5. 05| -1. 55| Mar-05| -13. 46| -26. 80| 1. 82| 5. 49| -3. 27| -6. 84| 5. 69| 2. 47| 2. 70| -15. 30| -5. 93| 1. 77| -4. 31| Apr-05| 10. 26| 10. 81| 7. 80| 0. 30| 6. 89| 5. 77| 0. 81| 13. 29| 1. 85| 26. 26| 0. 0| 7. 83| 7. 70| May-05| -7. 42| 7. 71| 3. 28| -1. 85| 1. 28| -0. 53| -3. 28| 5. 35| -4. 36| 7. 82| 2. 05| -6. 85| 0. 27| Jun-05| 15. 87| 7. 31| 0. 02| -4. 98| 13. 64| 12. 29| 2. 84| 15. 98| 6. 01| 5. 25| 2. 39| -3. 78| 6. 07| Jul-05| 9. 94| -1. 49| 1. 91| 0. 62| 2. 93| -11. 09| -7. 10| 3. 28| -0. 26| 0. 88| -8. 62| -0. 06| -0. 76| Aug-05| 14. 33| 9. 56| 1. 39| 4. 01| 5. 88| -5. 92| -4. 72| 0. 87| 7. 16| -4. 94| -2. 53| 1. 56| 2. 22| Sep-05| 7. 42| -1. 17| -4. 87| 0. 56| -10. 09| -0. 85| 0. 94| 0. 57| -5. 36| -4. 74| 7. 96| 9. 25| -0. 03| Oct-05| 17. 76| -2. 93| 5. 88| 7. 09| 9. 87| 14. 30| -4. 16| 8. 74| 2. 14| 14. 77| 2. 5| 8. 82| 7. 08| Nov-05| 6. 00| 4. 59| 3. 02| -0. 05| -0. 02| -1. 25| 1. 89| -6. 07| 1. 21| -6. 29| -3. 34| -2. 61| -0. 24| Dec-05| 5. 04| 27. 73| -2. 76| -4. 01| 18. 01| 5. 37| -7. 33| 0. 51| 2. 82| -15. 37| -1. 46| -12. 25| 1. 36| Jan-06| -9. 30| 1. 05| 6. 86| 0. 62| 7. 63| 6. 30| 0. 37| -5. 74| 1. 18| -9. 88| -1. 65| -6. 75| -0. 78| Feb-06| -8. 42| 6. 07| 7. 22| 1. 84| -1. 74| 4. 15| 2. 11| 7. 26| -3. 84| -0. 78| 4. 55| 0. 62| 1. 59| Mar-06| 12. 23| 7. 99| 7. 08| 6. 85| 5. 80| 11. 05| 2. 13| -6. 82| 1. 58| -7. 69| -4. 69| 1. 61| 3. 09| Apr-06| -15. 09| 14. 65| 0. 10| -1. 29| -3. 68| -2. 49| 7. 16| -1. 23| -6. 81| -3. 85| 7. 8| -3. 63| -0. 68| May-06| -4. 18| -0. 69| -1. 62| -2. 13| 2. 10| -1. 98| -3. 22| -4. 22| 2. 49| 5. 56| -0. 57| 4. 46| -0. 33| Jun-06| 18. 67| 6. 57| -5. 48| 0. 12| -4. 44| -13. 09| -0. 18| 12. 97| 1. 65| -11. 58| -7. 63| -17. 76| -1. 68| Jul-06| -0. 16| -6. 19| -2. 88| 3. 20| -6. 37| 7. 63| -1. 35| 2. 71| 10 . 14| -2. 86| 0. 88| 6. 23| 0. 92| Aug-06| 13. 46| -7. 98| 5. 28| 0. 63| -0. 83| 7. 94| -0. 94| 7. 16| 0. 14| -3. 92| 10. 29| -12. 31| 1. 58| Sep-06| 5. 33| 1. 61| 1. 28| 0. 99| -7. 33| 1. 47| -1. 03| -7. 76| 2. 78| -2. 30| -0. 09| 4. 19| -0. 07| Oct-06| 13. 05| -8. 57| 11. 25| -0. 16| 2. 18| 12. 75| 0. 64| -3. 85| -0. 5| 11. 23| -6. 46| 2. 54| 2. 80| Nov-06| -7. 44| -8. 95| 0. 35| 12. 31| -1. 14| -0. 51| -5. 99| -7. 06| 2. 37| -16. 90| 0. 55| -5. 44| -3. 15| Dec-06| 1. 05| 0. 13| 0. 80| -1. 01| 5. 00| 5. 48| 2. 48| -3. 44| 1. 41| 4. 24| 3. 26| 10. 85| 2. 52| Jan-07| -1. 31| 7. 68| -2. 19| -7. 72| 0. 56| 7. 98| 4. 18| -6. 71| -2. 13| -1. 08| 1. 30| 9. 01| 0. 80| Feb-07| 9. 81| 6. 86| 1. 90| 1. 91| 4. 03| 0. 74| 3. 31| -4. 33| -0. 51| -12. 33| -2. 36| 1. 39| 0. 87| Mar-07| 7. 42| 5. 45| 4. 61| 4. 44| 8. 82| 0. 70| 0. 56| -1. 94| 2. 51| -7. 50| 2. 08| -10. 39| 1. 40| Apr-07| 21. 43| -9. 17| 8. 56| 2. 66| 8. 21| 10. 13| -3. 61| 4. 97| -1. 1| -1. 01| -0. 22| 2. 35| 3. 58| May-07| 0. 70| -5. 57| -4. 41| -5. 87| -0. 36| 0. 58| -3. 95| -2. 40| -3. 71| 3. 07| 1. 08| -5. 47| -2. 19| Jun-07| 7. 96| 1. 55| 7. 56| -9. 22| 1. 06| -0. 26| -8. 94| -4. 04| 1. 66| -0. 33| -4. 49| -14. 30| -1. 82| Jul-07| 5. 10| 0. 65| -6. 19| 1. 84| -3. 84| 12. 99| 1. 53| -0. 24| 5. 58| -1. 33| -4. 57| -2. 24| 0. 77| Aug-07| 10. 82| -1. 85| 8. 57| -0. 43| 3. 51| 9. 47| -0. 19| 9. 65| 7. 70| 17. 51| 0. 05| 18. 08| 6. 91| Sep-07| 23. 77| 8. 18| -6. 10| -10. 22| -4. 42| 4. 36| -7. 12| 1. 39| -0. 68| -3. 72| 3. 57| 15. 87| 2. 07| Oct-07| -4. 07| 1. 89| -5. 80| -19. 49| -3. 63| 10. 91| -6. 1| -15. 00| 6. 44| 13. 99| 5. 95| -13. 79| -2. 44| Nov-07| 8. 70| 27. 73| -5. 48| -11. 59| 0. 91| 8. 70| -1. 28| 0. 78| -0. 77| -20. 89| -0. 33| -13. 24| -0. 56| Dec-07| -31. 66| -5. 27| -4. 90| -3. 20| -1. 61| -5. 97| -8. 19| -28. 29| -10. 46| 5. 61| 6. 75| -17. 54| -8. 73| Jan-08| -7. 64| 2. 85| 0. 03| -15. 85| 1. 89| -2. 69| 3. 34| -13. 33| 1. 17| -11. 25| -2. 26| 44. 84| 0. 09| Feb-08| 14. 78| -8. 73| -10. 17 | -9. 66| 8. 24| -5. 30| 1. 60| -6. 30| 5. 87| 0. 70| 6. 74| 4. 14| 0. 16| Mar-08| 21. 22| 7. 06| 14. 10| 17. 97| 5. 06| 4. 51| -0. 79| 7. 16| -3. 76| -10. 14| 10. 06| -5. 25| 5. 60| Apr-08| | | | | | | | | | | | | |Mean| 6. 16| 2. 80| 2. 23| -0. 22| 2. 26| 2. 65| 0. 50| 1. 05| 0. 91| 3. 86| 0. 26| 1. 94| 0. 0203 | Standard Deviation| 0. 118500359| 0. 084954962| 0. 061336785| 0. 061929002| 0. 064312603| 0. 070978888| 0. 046175086| 0. 088335566| 0. 038977677| 0. 220687247| 0. 045999568| 0. 114508009| 0. 0437 | Annual Mean| 0. 7386| 0. 33654| 0. 26758| -0. 02684| 0. 27156| 0. 31746| 0. 05988| 0. 12642| 0. 10964| 0. 46308| 0. 03112| 0. 23252| 0. 2440 | Annual SD| 0. 410497285| 0. 294292621| 0. 212476856| 0. 214528357| 0. 222785393| 0. 24587808| 0. 159955189| 0. 306003375| 0. 135022634| 0. 764483048| 0. 159347179| 0. 39666738| 0. 1514 |

Friday, September 27, 2019

Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Report - Essay Example This project discusses the bank’s reasons for establishing itself in the Peruvian economy and the appropriateness of its strategies to do the same. HSBC started operating in Peru as a Greenfield project. The reason to choose Peru for starting the project was that it would be free of any constraints arising from prior activities. It had not operated in this place before. There were also very few other financial service providers. Thus there would be fewer possibilities of restrictions and constraints. The organisation has also undertaken a number of successful Greenfield infrastructure projects since 1997, making investments of more than $15 billion (HSBC-g, 2010, p.2). The strategy was implemented beginning with the opening of Commercial and Global Banking services. In the next year it was followed by opening of the â€Å"Personal Financial Services† (HSBC-b, 2009). The market entry strategy began with the opening of the retail branch network in Peru. The most common st rategies confronting the organisation would be establishing start-ups or joint ventures. However the strategy chosen by HSBC was establishing a start-up retail branch in Peru. This is because the region has very few financial service providers. This method is also preferred because it would allow the organisation to keep control over its foreign venture. On the contrary the company’s major step undertaken in China was in the form of joint ventures. This is because it has operated in the Chinese economy for a long time. This strategy is not recommended for HSBC in Peru because it has minimum expertise with local knowledge which would allow it create maximum benefits for its customers (HSBC-f, 2010). Its strategy is to contribute to the economy and bring tangible benefits in the market in which it operates. The revenue generated would be used to pay dividends to shareholders, make payments to the global suppliers (INCR, 2008, p.5). The following table gives the pre-tax profit g ained by HSBC in 2008 and other geographical regions. Figure 1: Pre-tax profit by HSBC in Latin America and in other geographical region (Source: INCR, 2008, p.5) An important strategic step taken by HSBC in alignment with its objective was to increase the number of customer accounts in Latin America. This was primarily meant to maintain high liquidity levels in the organisation. The amount of loans and advances made to the customers has been presented in the following diagram (HSBC-e, 2010, p.13). Peru has also represented as one of the most liberalized regions for attracting foreign investments. This was the reason for HSBC to establish banking operations in the region. In Peru the MNCs are also protected against discrimination and are provided easy access to every sector in the economy. Moreover, MNCs are also free to remit profits and capital. The banking sector is also regulated and supervised by â€Å"Banking and Insurance Superintendency operating in the retail sector under the category of universal banking† (Yi, n.d., p.8). This provided insurance for opening new establishments in a foreign nation as a step towards global expansion. HSBC decided to establish a retail branch network as an attempt to further expand its franchisees in Latin America. It has also received approval for the same. It has been authorised by â€Å"the superintendent of banking and insurance in Peru† to establish 10 retail branches in Lima. The first step towards

Thursday, September 26, 2019

SWOT Analysis as a Strategic Management Tool Essay

SWOT Analysis as a Strategic Management Tool - Essay Example The next section will tackle SWOT analysis' advantages and limitations. The paper will conclude with its findings. SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis is one of the most widely utilized strategic management tools in assessing the position of a business entity. This analysis is an integration of the results of other tools like the PESTEL analysis, industry analysis, and internal analysis. The company's strengths and weaknesses are derived from internal analysis while the PESTEL and industry analyses provide the required information to ascertain the opportunities and threats specific to the company. According to Thomson (2004), a company's strength is "something a company is good at doing or a characteristic that gives it enhanced competitiveness." A strength can take several forms like a skill or important expertise, valuable physical assets valuable human assets, valuable intangible assets, competitive capabilities, an achievement or attribute that puts the company in a position of market advantage, and alliances or cooperative ventures. Meanwhile, a weakness denotes to a something that a company lacks or is not good at doing relative to its competitors and puts the company in a disadvantage. ... tity: "deficiencies in competitively important skills or expertise or intellectual capital of one kind or another; lack of competitively important physical, organizational or intangible assets; and missing or weak competitive capabilities in key areas" (Thomson 2002). Opportunities are essential external factors, which can propel the business entity into higher profitability. However, distinction should be made in order to determine whether an opportunity is an industry or company opportunity. While company opportunity is an opportunity specific to a business institution, industry opportunity needs to be thoroughly evaluated in order to assess if a company has the required resources to take advantage of the opportunity. Threats are external factors which causes threats to a business entity's profitability and competitive well-being. An Application The following table shows the SWOT analysis as applied to the large computer manufacturer Dell, Inc. Strengths Weaknesses large market share strong brand equity no inventory buildup cost efficiency direct to customer business model customization total command of supply chain strategic alliance with suppliers no proprietary technology high dependence on component suppliers Opportunities Threats strong potential markets in Europe, China , and India low costs and advanced technology growth in business, education, and government markets more intense rivalry currency fluctuations high customer bargaining power SWOT Analysis: A Critique SWOT analysis is indeed a useful tool in determining the internal capability and incapability and the external forces that affects the operation and profitability of a business organization. As shown above, SWOT analysis is very useful in assessing the strengths and weaknesses of Dell,

How the Fico or credit score impacts on consumers Research Paper

How the Fico or credit score impacts on consumers - Research Paper Example A lot of consumers don't appreciate the importance of personal credit scores and how it impacts on their daily lives. Some don’t know that credit scores are available and accessible online. A credit score can have a say on what a consumer is or is not able to do. For instance, it can determine what one pays for leasing or auto financing, credit card rates, car insurance and mortgages. It can affect things we may take for granted like whether one gets a job or rent an apartment. When applying for credit, the lenders want to know your credit risk level Buyers or consumers with poor credit (high credit risk level) are turned away by the lending institutions. The current tightening up of the loan and mortgage market makes the situation worse. Customers with less than a 700 credit score are being turned away by car dealers. It is now more important than ever to have a good credit score. Keywords: Credit score, FICOÂ ®, consumers, lenders. What is a Credit Score? A credit score is a number that summarizes your credit risk, based on your credit report at a particular point in time (FICO Booklet). Credit reports and credit risk levels can be evaluated using your credit scores by the lenders. Since it’s just a single number, the lenders don’t have to read through the whole credit history report. It is an indicator of how likely you are to pay your bills. Consumers should be aware that lenders use other information to determine one’s creditworthiness along with the credit scores.... A high score is preferred by the lenders. For instance a score of 720 will get you favorable interests on a mortgage, according to Fair Isaac Corporation. The following table shows how credit scores break out for the American public. Credit Score Percentage 499 and below 2 percent 500 – 549 5 percent 550 – 599 8 percent 600 – 649 12 percent 650 – 699 15 percent 700 – 749 18 percent 750 – 799 27 percent 800 and above 13 percent Components of the FICO Score A credit report contains different types of credit data. It is this data that is used to compute the FICO Scores. Data is grouped into five categories as illustrated below. The percentage represents the importance of each category in computation of your FICO Score. Source: Fair Isaac Corporation Website Items considered in the payment history are account payment information (credit cards, mortgage and retail accounts), Public records (legal suits, bankruptcy, liens and judgments) and delinqu ency, Severity of delinquency, recency of delinquency and adverse public records, past due items on file and accounts paid on time. Amounts owed is checked for the amounts owing on the specific types of accounts, number of accounts with balances, proportion of credit lines used and proportion of installment loan amounts still owing The line of credit history is concerned with the time duration since the accounts were opened and other account activities that have taken place. New credit category is used to check recently opened accounts, recent credit inquiries, last duration of credit inquiry and positive credit history re-establishment following repayment problems Lastly, types of credit used category looks at the recent information on the various types of accounts, be they

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Movie summary on Tough Guise Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Movie summary on Tough Guise - Research Paper Example Movie summary on "Tough Guise" When Katz asks young men to define what it means to be a man, he gets feedbacks like physical, in control, strong, athletic, stud, tough, and powerful. However, when men fail to conform, they are called emotional, bitch, fag, queer, and pussy. In this film, it is depicted that men tend to be more aggressive and physical, but women are the exact opposite. Towards the end in a section referred to as â€Å"Better Man,† Katz documents that America has made some positive attempts and features several earlier examples from more human and sensitive men and media content. Analysis of feminist theme in â€Å"Tough Guise† Masculinity and violence â€Å"Tough guise† was well-developed, using effective and interesting examples to bring out its main topic about masculinity and violence. The rest of the ideas presented were well supported to give good insight into the concepts of masculinity constructed by the current society. Regardless of these strengths, the movie over exem plified the idea of masculinity by merely addressing â€Å"toxic characters.† However, this does not erase the fact that the movie clearly shows the application of masculinity to violence and crime. The movie is really a challenging one especially when one thinks of the way films and the media marginalize men. While watching the movie, it is important to reflect on the discussion in the book, Women's Voices by Shaw and Janet Lee about gender and performance. They argue, â€Å"There are politics in sexual relationships because they occur in the context of a society that assigns power based on gender and other systems of inequality and privilege† (Shaw & Lee 46). Most of the critiques of masculinity may be inclusive of arguments that it disregards dissimilarities and outlines ideas in a heteronormative conception of gender. Such critiques are put forward by feminist thinkers who discuss this concept. The arguments by Shaw and Lee are very interchangeable and have a clear connection with the film because it is argued that masculinity can be replaced by â€Å"aggressiveness† and â€Å"femininity† with â€Å"passiveness.† The constant arguments constructed on ideas of femininity and masculinity proves the authors’ suggestions that none of these misconceptions are natural but mere performances. When the society scrutinizes dissimilarities between women and men as well as ideas of gender, it seems like people will often be performing to a certain degree. I agree with the theme of violence and masculinity in this movie that the two issues are part of the continuing crisis in America. The question that really arises when one watches the movie is â€Å"why do men behave in the way they do, and why is a huge percentage of violence committed by men and boys?† It is not merely in such few places like in video games that these happen, but it is in what is evident in normal culture. It forms part of the normal conditioning and training of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Importance of Understanding of Marketing to Organizations Essay - 1

Importance of Understanding of Marketing to Organizations - Essay Example This paper illustrates that successful firms adjust their marketing approaches to the changes in the set-up of the environment. Nevertheless, an awareness of the market-place is critical as there is a very little effect if the firm is marketing knowledge remains within its own boundaries. So that information can become useful, it has to be shared in the entire organization. Some of the knowledge may be codified to create a situation where they can be sent through information technology systems. However, tacit knowledge can only be shared through a give and take method which may be developed by participants over time after they understand the intricacies associated with a particular situation. Tacit knowledge allows an organization to apply critical knowledge in operational activities whose outcome is improved efficacy, the creation of value and improved financial performances. For instance, when a sales-person gets more knowledge concerning what an executive requires in a main custom er’s firm, they can utilize this information to better customize the message, create a better solution and increase the chances of amassing revenue. Therefore, this form of knowledge may be used as a source of competitive advantage creating the need to understand the ways in which this form of knowledge may be shared. In order for a business to succeed, the customers must be aware of the product associated with the business. Except if the public is aware of the firm and the firm’s communiquà © with the clients is easily obtainable, the firm has to utilize marketing approaches to develop product awareness. The use of marketing in the promotion of the company’s product provides the business with the opportunity of being discovered by prospective clients. When the prospective clients become aware of the product and the company, the chances that the customers will make purchases increases.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Dereks Social History Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Dereks Social History - Case Study Example As the discussion outlines aside excessive drinking, moderate drinking causes short-term impairment as can be deduced from the effects of drunk driving. The extent of alcohol damage on the brain is dependent on the following factors: amount and frequency of drinking, age at which the individual began drinking and duration of drinking thereafter. Other factors include genetic background, alcoholism history in the family, prenatal alcohol exposure, and general health status. Alcohol causes impairments in the following brain regions. Impairment of the parietal lobe results to the loss of fine motor skills, shaking and abnormally slows reaction time. Impairment of the frontal lobe leads to loss of caution, inhibitions, reason and exacerbates intelligence, talkativeness and sociability. Impairment of the temporal lobe leads to slurred speech and impaired hearing. Impairment of the occipital lobe results in blurred vision hence poor judgment of distance. Impairment of the cerebellum and br ain stem results in poor muscle coordination and loss of vital functions respectively. This paper highlights that long-term excessive drinking causes the brain to shrink and deficiencies in the fibers of the white matter that relay information to the gray matter. This has been elucidated using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Intoxicating levels of alcohol lead to vasodilation of blood vessels and at higher levels it leads to vasoconstriction thereby triggering blood pressure and migraine headaches. The effects of alcohol on a developing fetus are well documented. The babies are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and are highly predisposed to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions that are manifested as impaired IQ and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Leadership and Supervision Issues in Nathaniel Philbrick’s In the Heart of the Sea Essay Example for Free

Leadership and Supervision Issues in Nathaniel Philbrick’s In the Heart of the Sea Essay Nathaniel Philbrick’s In the Heart of the Sea describes the tragic final voyage of the Nantucket-based whaler Essex in 1820. The Essex was a floating factory, a comparatively small but sturdy vessel designed to travel great distances to find, kill, and process whales, thus yielding the extremely valuable whale oil and other products. In the Heart of the Sea also describes a series of errors, mishaps and miscalculations—often with fatal results—in the management, leadership and supervision of the enterprise. These events, despite the distance in time, provide scenarios to compare and contrast present-day concepts of leadership and supervision. The story of the Essex illustrates numerous instances of (a) poor planning before and during the journey, (b) poor staffing decisions before and during the journey, (c) indecisive and/or poor leadership and (d) poor supervision which contributed to the difficult journey, the sinking of the Essex and the horrible aftermath. Typical of the practices of the era and locale, Essex was captained, but not owned and provisioned, by a sailor-officer who had risen through the ranks. This would be the first command voyage of Captain George Pollard, Jr. By all accounts he had successfully risen to First Mate of the Essex on previous voyages and was given captaincy when the former captain was given a newer and larger vessel. Unfortunately he inherited a worn ship soon to be out of commission. Accordingly the owners spent as little as possible on repairs of the vessel and even less on provisions for the multi-year cruise. There is no indication Pollard had any input in either decision. As this was his first command he was likely to remain in his employers’ good graces and refrain from insisting on better repairs and outfitting. To further compound these initial as well as future problems was the wage payment structure in which Pollard and the crew were essentially working on commission. Payment to officers and seamen alike would be a portion based on rank and seniority paid only if the valuable whale oil was safely in port. Other experienced captains had the ability and option to add to the original provisions. Pollard either decided to set sail despite the meager provisions or was unable to supplement them by his own means. This system strongly contrasts to management practices of the day as well as contemporary practices. Owner-operated businesses were not at all uncommon in the era with a strong â€Å"hands-on† style of leadership. Most striking would be the owner-operated vessels with a captain well-versed on ship maintenance and outfitting. Obviously today anyone would be considered naive at best and insane at worst to take on such a logistical task of any sort without having been given decision-making authority. Today even with companies having distant or publicly held ownership the leadership and decision-makers of the company are urged to â€Å"buy into† the company in the sense of making decisions and leading in a manner consistent with actual ownership. If Pollard can be excused to some extent for the poor decision-making at home port, the disastrous lack of planning during his maiden voyage is his burden alone. After almost loosing his ship virtually at the onset of the voyage he is either unable or incapable of tactical or strategic planning when the Essex is destroyed. With a previously damaged vessel prudence would dictate some sort of â€Å"disaster plan† short of a belief that lightening will not strike the same place twice. While the Essex was sinking it was the foresight of others who managed to salvage essential items. Some decisions defied common sense. Instead of cooking and preparing a substantial amount of available turtle meat he simply placed two live turtles with each surviving whaleboat. Perhaps Pollard did not think the unthinkable could happen again. Such planning and preparedness is not something novel, for his era or ours. It is simply the ability to survive the unexpected and the wisdom to learn from it. Contemporary leadership in management, government, and virtually any other field must be prepared for the unexpected. The unexpected and the disastrous will certainly occur, usually when least expected. It then also becomes a learning experience for leadership to plan and think for the â€Å"unplanned and unthinkable†. Consistent with the idea of poor or non-existent planning was the Nantucket concept of staffing vessels with the unskilled. Pollard’s ship was manned by a significant number of â€Å"sailors† who had never lived in Nantucket nor experienced life on a whaler. Other â€Å"sailors† included inexperienced Nantucket youngsters anxious for their first cruise as well as officers sailing in newly-promoted ranks. It was expected of Pollard and his officers to essentially conduct on-the-job training for the unskilled staff. However, once again, if Pollard can be excused for having to deal with something out of his control, the staffing decisions made during the disaster were his alone. Most glaring was the decision regarding the placement of the survivors in what would become their lifeboats. No consideration was given to skill, ability or health. Instead, it was a system based on whether a sailor was black or white, Nantucketer or not. Apprenticeships and on-the-job training are time-honored practices dating back centuries and still valid today. Both systems are based on both a lengthy or at least sufficient period of time and a non-critical or at least supervised situation. The apprentice or OJT worker will make mistakes and is given the opportunity to make them and learn from them in a controlled situation. Once skilled, the staffing pattern must be developed to maintain whatever production or quality standard is to be met. In an emergency situation such decisions must be made by leadership without being distracted by pointless issues of race, class, or place of birth. Again, Pollard can be shielded to some extent by the customs and practices of his day. Contemporary leaders have no such excuse. Decision-making is often made in the lonely vacuum of sole command, something that Pollard, at times, was unable or willing to do. â€Å"Leadership by consensus† was not something he learned, but he did indeed practice. Additionally, indecision is in fact a decision, and one that eats time. After the initial near-fatal keeling of his ship Pollard commits both errors: he abdicates sole leadership, procrastinates, reverses himself, and by trying to lead by consensus ultimately leads his ship to disaster. Again, forces work against Pollard. To turn back with a damaged empty ship would result in no wages and possibly a loss of command. By deciding to continue the voyage with a damaged ship, lost provisions, and lost whaleboats Pollard was not talking a calculated risk, he was essentially dooming his ship and crew to disaster. Modern management case studies abound with the disastrous stories of managers failing to decide and having that â€Å"activity† yield worse results than a bad decision. Most missions are time-critical and while many, if not most missions can have a built-in method of correcting erroneous decisions there is no method for reversing time lost in indecision. The texts are equally full of the horror stories of leaders who take the â€Å"ahead at all costs† attitude without a realistic appraisal of whether their â€Å"ship† can handle the journey. This inevitably results in the learned experience that â€Å"profitability at all costs† is very unprofitable. After the sinking of the Essex a variety of decisions were made, some based on common sense, or lack of same, and others based on the nautical knowledge of the time. Perhaps the most glaring was the decision to allow the surviving whaleboats to operate in an individual fashion, without tying together during the night. While a questionable seafaring decision, it casts some light on broader contemporary issues. During critical situations, whether a production run or a full-scale emergency it is common sense and a practical necessity to maintain communication and command. Failure to maintain either can jeopardize the personnel and the mission. In the Heart of the Sea is filled with numerous examples of poor supervision. From the very onset there is no indication Pollard really supervised the repair and provisioning of his vessel; it all likelihood he delegated a great deal of this responsibility to his First and Second Mate. There is no indication he did a thorough, hands-on investigation of his damaged vessel after the initial near-sinking. Once whaling he was out in a whaleboat, as was the custom, instead of being in a position on deck to supervise all of the events that would unfold. There is no indication he personally undertook a surveillance of Henderson Island to determine if it could sustain the crew, or in the alternative, if it could better provision the survivors on their continued voyage. During many of the catastrophic events Pollard seemed overwhelmed and incapacitated by the situation. He was unable to command and supervise what can only be described as life-threatening or life-saving activity unfolding in front of him. Once all was lost he decided to allow the boats to go their own way, and was unable to maintain the supervision of survivors when that was his most critical duty. Throughout the disastrous journey the questionable command of Pollard is and will be debated. What is certain is there was considerable doubt at the time that he exercised the decision-making responsibilities in a prudent manner. The captain of a ship and the leader of a corporation must be able to face a situation, whether mundane or critical, and make very quick and decisive actions. First and foremost is the decision of whether to take a â€Å"hands on† approach or delegate responsibility. There is no easy or set answer, and either method can be disastrous, if a leader usurps a subordinate’s better command of a situation or if responsibility is delegated to someone incapable of handling the situation. However, the command of a ship is unique and very similar to many organizational situations in that the leader at the very top is expected to be well-versed and capable of every function in the entire organization. If that is not the case, then the leader must have a clear understanding of his personal abilities and limitations as well as that of all of the subordinates in the chain of command. Throughout the narratives and accounts which the book is comprised of there is mention of, and no doubt that the captain knew his ship better than anyone. However, it became very obvious at the onset that his knowledge of his and his officers’ capabilities was suspect. At only one point was Pollard described as acting with the authority and decisiveness normally required of a ship’s captain. He quickly and ferociously responded to an early â€Å"protest† by the crew relating to what they considered poor rations. His outburst and threatened action quelled the protest and certainly left the crew with no doubt of his intent. However, what is missing is the not-unusual comments and attitude from crewmen indicating complete respect of their captain and their willingness to follow his commands, regardless of outcome, because of their knowledge of him and his ability. It is imperative upon leaders to not just know their workplace, but to know their staff. It is not enough to â€Å"go ballistic† once in a while to let the staff know what will happen if something is discovered amiss or in response to what behavior is not to be tolerated. Command through intimidation is foolhardy; what is necessary of leadership is to prove competency to staff and subordinates to the point where there is no doubt there is respect in the leader’s ability. At that point leadership becomes â€Å"natural† if and when the staff and subordinates believe the leadership will in fact lead, but do so in a manner that takes into account the well-being, if not survival, of all. In modern society â€Å"survival† is often economic survival, and depending on the organization or industry economic survival must be paramount in management’s priorities. Pollard lost on both counts; the voyage was a complete economic disaster and resulted in the deaths of the majority of his crew. The journey was a voyage of poor planning, staffing, decision-making and supervision. It is an epic of missed opportunities and unrealistic goals. It is a blueprint for any manager or leader in what not to do. Leadership cannot afford to be unprepared in any of the areas noted above. Each interact and influence the other, often in ways unanticipated and noted only too late. It is easy, but very necessary to look at situations with twenty-twenty hindsight if lessons are to be learned and errors prevented in the future. There is a host of what-if questions presented by In the Heart of the Sea which every leader should take to heart.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Hobbess Theory Of Sovereignty Philosophy Essay

Hobbess Theory Of Sovereignty Philosophy Essay Thomas Hobbess Leviathan is a very influential book on the politics and government written during the turmoil of the English Civil War in the 17th century. The book is important in itself that in it Hobbes aims to formulate the essence of the power of the sovereign. Indeed, Hobbess political philosophy is based on royalism and absolutism in governance. Moreover, Hobbess political philosophy is concerned about the supremacy of the absolute power of the monarchy in both legislation and government. On the other hand, Hobbess doctrine of the absolute power and sovereignty is a political view which is based on the idea that the power of the monarch is stronger by making agreement between the kings and the subjects. And within this social contract everything is ruled and formulated by the absolute power or the sovereign with the aim of preserving the peace and order in the society. Therefore, Hobbes claims that the king or the sovereign is right when he punishes the subject for their committing crime against the state and the king. Accordingly Hobbes defends the deeds of the king against the subjects and preserves kings orders and ideas that king is right every time for his the chosen person by the society. Hobbes thinks that the subjects should the obey the rules and orders of the sovereign under every conditions, and the sovereign is right and just in his decisions, ideas and rules for the sake of the goodness of the society. Therefore the aim of the paper is to justify Hobbess argument for the claim that he thinks that it is impossible for a sovereign to harm or act unjustly towards his subjects. Moreover, Hobbes this idea of sovereignity means that there are no any contraints on a sovereign as to how he treats his subjects. Hobbes defends, first of all, this view due to the fact that for securing self-preservation, the main aim of the law of nature, which Hobbes set, is to enforce the subjects or the people to seek peace and order and to defend himself against the dangers of the dangerous commitment of the society. Thus, Hobbess theory of political philosophy requires that people should give all their rights to the sovereign. Thus, it is clear from these statements and writings by H obbes, it is only the king who has the authority and power to decide what will be necessary for the defense and preservation of the security of the people. Therore, it is also clear from the statements that while the subjects in the society are lack of all their rights for the sake of the freedom and the order of the state, the sovereigns power and authority become unlimited with his will which is above everything including the law itself. According to the twelve principles of the rights, Hobbes states that he rejects the idea of Separation of Powers. All of the powers are given to one man, the sovereign, and people are bound to the orders of the sovereign. According to the twelve principles, the subjects cannot change the form of government; the subjects give to the sovereign the right to act for them; the selection of sovereign is by majority vote; every subject is author of the acts of the sovereign, thus the sovereign cannot injure any of his subjects, and he cannot be accused of injustice; the sovereign cannot justly be put to death by the subjects; the sovereign has the right to do whatever he thinks necessary for the preserving of peace and security and prevention of discord; the sovereign prescribes the rules of civil law and property; the sovereign is judge in all cases; the sovereign makes war and peace as he sees fit; and he command the army; the sovereign choose counselors, ministers, magistrates and office rs; the sovereign rewards and punishes the people; and the sovereign establishes laws of honor and a scale of worth. This governmental structure leads to absolutism, which is contrary to the separation of powers in state. This kind of ruling and state has more disadvantages than the advantages. Hobbes states that in the state of nature men were at war against each other. In the nature and condition of war every one is in war against every one. Here Hobbes claims that there are three principal causes of war which are competition, diffidence, and glory. Hobbes idea is that men were at war with each other as a result of chaos which is arisen from the lack of a ruler and a sovereign. Therefore Hobbes describes the problem of condition of human life as the absence of government before there were not any laws and rules to control people. Hobbes claims that people who act appetitive and brutally created a chaotic and war like situation. Therefore, according to Hobbes, life before the construction of the civil society and law was considered as continuous and total war. Thus, for Hobbes the good is the commonwealth in which a sovereign saves people from the warring condition. While according to Hobbes, evil is located in the primitive society where is not ruled in accordance to laws by a sovereign. The interests of people are in warring state in such a state. However, when people give their rights to a sovereign, a sovereign prevents the warring nature among people. Thus Hobbes locates good in the peoples giving their rights to a sovereign.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Fracture Resistance of Esthetic Post and Core Systems

Fracture Resistance of Esthetic Post and Core Systems Comparison of fracture resistance of three recent esthetic post and core systems with cast metal post and core to compressive loading An in vitro Study ABSTRACT: Aim: To determine and compare the fracture resistance of three recently introduced esthetic post and core systems with a cast metal post and core to compressive loading using a clinically related test method. Materials and Methods: Forty maxillary central incisors were selected, sectioned and their roots endodontically treated and assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=10).The cast metal post and core (CMPC) served as control group.The other groups are zirconium dioxide post and ceramic core group (ZCER), zirconium dioxide posts and composite core group (ZCOM) and glass fiber post and composite core group (GFCOM).The post spaces were prepared, posts were seated and cores were formed. A compressive load was applied to the inclined surface on each specimen until failure occurred and measured in newtons. Results: CMPC and ZCER groups exhibited the highest resistance fracture and the values are : 680.6 N and 630.03 N respectively . ZCOM group exhibited fracture resistance greater than GFCOM but less than ZCER and CMPC. Conclusion: CMPC group and ZCER group were found to be more fracture resistant than the ZCOM group and GFCOM group. Aside from its desirable esthetic properties,the ZCER group demonstrated high resistance to fracture. Keywords: compressive loading, endodontic treatment, fracture resistance, post and core INTRODUCTION Endodontic therapy has provided dentistry the ability to retain teeth that just a few decades ago would have been extracted without hesitation.When there is substantial loss of coronal tooth structure due to caries, trauma or both, a post and core is often required to retain a definitive restoration. A post is usually placed in an attempt to strengthen the tooth.1,2,3 However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that a post cannot reinforce endodontically treated teeth.4,5,6 Posts are required for supporting a core foundation when there is insufficient clinical crown remaining.4,5,6,7 Although cast post and core foundations are the gold standard for endodontically treated teeth, due to their superior physical properties and proven clinical effectiveness8 yet its mechanical properties may increase the risk of root fracture9. The esthetic properties of these materials are limited since the gray colored post is apparent when used to support translucent all ceramic restorations. Coupled with a high lip line, cast metal post and core foundation may create esthetic problems. In the recent times, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of all ceramic crowns, particularly for anterior teeth because of their superior natural appearance compared to metal ceramic restorations.10 Both the declining acceptance of cast post and core restorations as well as patients interest in dental esthetics has resulted in the development of esthetic posts, especially Glass Fiber and Zirconia Ceramics.These increase the transmission of light within the root and overlying gingival tissues, enhancing the esthetics. They also eliminate the potential hazards of corrosion and allergic hypersensitivity as they are metal free materials.11 Glass fibers such as silica or quartz reinforced epoxy resin posts have low modulus of elasticity similar to that of dentin.12 This property has been reported to reduce the risk of root fracture. 13,14 Glass fiber reinforced posts also have the advantage of easy removal if endodontic re-treatment is required. 15,16 A prefabricated zirconia ceramic post system has been introduced to satisfy esthetic needs presented by endodontically treated anterior teeth. The translucency of all ceramic crowns can be successfully maintained with the use of ceramic post and core materials. Moreover improvements in adhesive porcelain bonding systems have accelerated the trend toward the use of ceramic core materials. Many dentists prefer to use prefabricated post systems because they are more practical, less expensive and in some situations less invasive than customized post and core systems. They also save time and can provide satisfactory results. 17,18,19 The purpose of this in vitro study is to determine and compare fracture resistance of three esthetic post and core systems, Zirconia post and Ceramic core, Zirconia post and Composite core and Glass Fiber post and Composite core with cast posts under compressive loading. METHODOLOGY Forty extracted human permanent central incisors were selected based on similar dimensions,caries free,no restorations and cracks.The teeth were soaked in 3% sodium hypochlorite (Vishal Dentocare PVT LTD), for 6 hours. These forty teeth were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Cast Metal post and core (CMPC) Group 2: Zirconia posts and Ceramic core (ZCER) Group 3: Zirconia posts and Composite core (ZCOM) Group 4: Glass Fiber posts and Composite core (GFCOM) The coronal aspect of each tooth was resected perpendicular to the long axis and 1mm incisal to the cementoenamel junction, with a diamond coated disc (Horico) mounted in a straight handpiece (NSK, Japan). Labiolingual and mesiodistal measurements of the sectioned tooth surfaces were made with a digital vernier calipers (Aero space, China).The roots were endodontically instrumented to the apex using protaper rotary instruments (Dentsply,Maillefer) till F3 and obturated with protaper GP points (Dentsply,Maillefer) using ZOE sealer. Procedure for fabricating standardized cores: To obtain standardized cores, a wax pattern was fabricated from casting wax (Sk Dental waxes, Bombay) which had 6.5mm diameter base, 7.3 mm diameter cervico incisally and 6.2mm buccolingually. Impression of the wax pattern was taken with rubber base impression material (Exaflex). Then dies were made from the impression material. Polyvinyl material was vacuum pressed on these dies.In this way a hollow matrix was fabricated which had the same dimensions as that of the wax pattern. The base of the matrix was fitted flush to the sectioned tooth surfaces. Then 1 mm of the matrix was cut at the open end so that it acted as an inlet for the placement of composite resin. Procedure for preparation of forty samples: For all the groups the post spaces were enlarged with peeso reamers no 2 and 3 (MANI CE 0197 Prime Dental Products PVT LTD) initially to a depth of 9mm. The final enlargements were accomplished with the 1.4 mm diameter drills that were specifically given with 1.4mm zirconia posts (Cosmoposts,Ivoclar Vivadent) and 1.4mm GF posts (Bioloren,Ammdent). All the posts have 1.4mm diameter and were sectioned to a standard length of 13mm using carbide fissure bur and high speed airotor handpiece The length of the posts was 4 mm from the finish line into the core.In groups 2, 3 and 4 all the post spaces were etched using 37% orthorphosphoric acid (3M ESPE), for 30 sec and bonding was done using a bonding agent (3M ESPE) polymerized for 20 sec. Cementation was done using dual curing resin luting agent ( Kerr,Orange,CA). Group 1: A direct technique was used. The post pattern was fabricated using inlay wax. For the core part ,the polyvinyl matrix was placed on the tooth, resin wax (Leva) was injected in to the matrix and polymerized. After polymerization, the matrix was removed from the molded core. Then the entire pattern was retrieved from the root, invested and cast. The cast post and core systems were then cemented into the roots using GIC. Group 2: Posts were seated into the prepared post space.Polyvinyl matrix was placed on the tooth surface, resin wax was then injected in to the matrix and polymerized for 20 sec to form the core. Matrix was then removed and retrieved post and core foundations from the roots were invested with a phosphate bonded investment (Deguvest). Wax was eliminated from the invested units in a pre heated furnace (Unident) (800ËÅ ¡C for 45 minutes). Cores around zirconia posts were prepared using ceramic ingots (e-max, Ivoclar vivadent) heat-pressing process (975ËÅ ¡C for 45 min.) in a heat pressing furnace (Ivoclar vivadent). The formed ZCER foundations were then cemented into the post spaces. Group 3: After etching and bonding,posts were cemented in to the prepared post spaces. The matrix was seated on the sectioned tooth surface and composite core material (Z350, 3M ESPE) was placed in 2mm increments and polymerized for 20 sec. After polymerization, the matrix was removed from the molded cores. Group 4: Following etching and bonding posts were cemented into the prepared post spaces. The matrix was placed on the sectioned tooth surface and composite was placed in 2mm increments and was then polymerized for 20 sec. After polymerization, the matrix was removed from the molded cores. LOADING PROCEDURE: Following thermal cycling (5000 cycles between 5ËÅ ¡C and 55ËÅ ¡ C with a dwell time of 30 second) a universal testing machine (Shimadzu, Japan) was used to apply a constant compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min, at a 130Â º angle to the long axes of the test specimens, until failure ocurred. The tip of the loading bar was positioned to contact the centre of the palatoincisal surface at an angle of 90Â ºC. The force at failure was measured in newtons. RESULTS One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Post HocTukey test was used to compare the score between the groups. A 95% confidence level was used for the ANOVA test. Results showed that there was significant difference in the fracture resistance values obtained with different groups (p

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay --

MEDICAL HISTORY/BACKGROUND Concussions are probably one of the most known injuries to the brain right now, especially when it comes to sports. The life-long question has yet to be answered on how to truly cure concussions. Whether its sports, war explosions, or just falling off a ladder concussions are bound to happen to anybody and likely in one’s lifetime. Although most brain trauma is just mild and not very serious (Mayo Clinic, 2011). As far as determining if one has a concussion it can sometimes be very difficult. The symptoms between concussions and Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) can be very similar and can be hard to outline. This can be a nuisance later on if symptoms persist to determine on the treatment type (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 2013). SYMPTOMS There are many symptoms of a concussion, but none are that profound. Symptoms can a lot of times not be immediate if conscious. Usually victims are not unconscious. Symptoms can last for days and even months (Mayo Clinic, 2011). There are three general areas that concussions can fall under: physical, cognitive (brain function), and psychological or emotion (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 2013). Some symptoms include; headache, confusion, dizziness, amnesia, ringing in the ears, nausea, fatigue, and slurred speech. These are most but there are still plenty of symptoms still out there and more to be discovered (Mayo Clinic, 2011). This paper is mostly going to focus on the cognitive symptoms and how they affect patients. Victims of a concussion usually see all categories of symptoms but one sever category that a concussion can affect a person is cognitively. Cognitively means it deals with the brains functions and how trauma can affect its functions dai... ...the person gets a lot of rest and takes care of his body, then they should recover in not time, a few months top. Again it also varies based on the severity of the injury (Mayo Clinic, 2011). Now, the glutathione that had just been recently discovered to neutralize the brain cell killing molecules has not been tested on humans yet. It has been tested on rat’s and the deceased human’s brains. After applying the glutathione directly onto the skull after the injury it reduced the cell death to 67 percent, 50 percent three hours after the injury, which is a great thing that they are able to still treat even if they don’t diagnose a concussion at first (Roth, 2013). Yeah this isn’t a huge break-through considering that they haven’t tried it on humans, but it is a very big step to finding a way to effectively repair the brain after a concussion and even a possible cure.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Philosophy :: essays research papers

Philosophy â€Å"Man’s life is a line that nature commands him to describe upon the surface of the Earth without ever being able to swerve from it, even for an instant†¦His organization does in nowise depend upon himself, his ideas come to him involuntarily, his habits are in the power of those who cause him to contract them†¦He is good or bad, happy or miserable, wise or foolish, reasonable or irrational, without his will being for anything in these various states.† -D’Holbach   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I believe D’Holbach is trying to convey essentially that man is deprived of â€Å"free will.† Mankind in no way possesses any control of their actions, being, personality, or will. Every aspect of a person’s life is predetermined. He says people have only adopted the views of religion and put their faith in supreme beings such as God.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Nietzsche, on the other hand, views human nature in a different perspective. He believes man originated the idea of â€Å"free will† solely for the purpose of accountability to give men authority in crime and punishment. He also writes of the injustice in common misinterpretations of causation. Nietzsche focuses mainly on the relationship between cause and effect and â€Å"free will† whereas D’Holbach speaks more assertively about man’s predetermination and ignores any opposition one might have towards his point of view. Nietzsche also believes a person cannot be held accountable for their existence or living environment (also accountability is a major part of his idea). He states â€Å"No one gives a human being his qualities: not God, not society, not his parents or ancestors, and not himself.† On the contrary, D’Holbach believes some superior being is responsible for having a â€Å"master plan† for each human and giving them their characteristics, hence â€Å"we are cogs in the universe.† I interpret the ideas of these two philosophers to be closely related. Philosophy :: essays research papers Philosophy â€Å"Man’s life is a line that nature commands him to describe upon the surface of the Earth without ever being able to swerve from it, even for an instant†¦His organization does in nowise depend upon himself, his ideas come to him involuntarily, his habits are in the power of those who cause him to contract them†¦He is good or bad, happy or miserable, wise or foolish, reasonable or irrational, without his will being for anything in these various states.† -D’Holbach   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I believe D’Holbach is trying to convey essentially that man is deprived of â€Å"free will.† Mankind in no way possesses any control of their actions, being, personality, or will. Every aspect of a person’s life is predetermined. He says people have only adopted the views of religion and put their faith in supreme beings such as God.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Nietzsche, on the other hand, views human nature in a different perspective. He believes man originated the idea of â€Å"free will† solely for the purpose of accountability to give men authority in crime and punishment. He also writes of the injustice in common misinterpretations of causation. Nietzsche focuses mainly on the relationship between cause and effect and â€Å"free will† whereas D’Holbach speaks more assertively about man’s predetermination and ignores any opposition one might have towards his point of view. Nietzsche also believes a person cannot be held accountable for their existence or living environment (also accountability is a major part of his idea). He states â€Å"No one gives a human being his qualities: not God, not society, not his parents or ancestors, and not himself.† On the contrary, D’Holbach believes some superior being is responsible for having a â€Å"master plan† for each human and giving them their characteristics, hence â€Å"we are cogs in the universe.† I interpret the ideas of these two philosophers to be closely related.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Minorities in Film a Biography on John Woo

John Woo, one of Hong Kong's most famous and respected action director, has long been a cult favourite in the United States. John Woo[1] is a Chinese film director known especially for the ballet-like violence in his movies. Woo's films are also often tragic and sentimental, engaging with themes of loyalty and honour and the place of the loner hero in a world full of corruption and violence.Woo was born in Guangzhou, China, in 1946, and moved to Hong Kong with his family at age four. He was educated at Matteo Ricci College and, at age nineteen, began making experimental films. In lieu of film school, Woo sought entry-level positions in the flourishing Hong Kong film industry.It is identified that the bread-and-butter of the film industry is the action movie. Every season audiences can expect to see car chases, gunfights and explosions, and studios can expect to see millions and millions of dollars in return. Though most viewers and critics see these movies as â€Å"fuzz† enter tainment, there is one director, John Woo that puts as much heart and soul into his â€Å"fluff† as any number of talented directors put into their â€Å"serious† movies.He is the best contemporary director of action films working anywhere in the world. One of Woo's most vivid childhood memories was seeing a man killed on his front steps. After his family was aided by a local church (who allowed Woo to attend school there), he envisioned a different kind of path. He wanted to become a priest, but the fathers saw something different in him. John Woo's illustrious career as a filmmaker began in Hong Kong, where he spent over two decades at the centre of a thriving film industry directing nearly 30 feature films. He was known primarily as a comedy specialist until the mid-1980s when he created a series of inspired romantic and violent gangster dramas that broke box-office records.John Woo turned to the movies, which were a refuge for him from his earliest memories. As a t eenager, with borrowed film equipment, Woo and several of his friends began experimenting with the items and by the time he was 22, Woo was making his own movies. In 1969 Woo landed his first â€Å"real† job as a script supervisor at Cathay Studios.In 1971, Woo moved to the prestigious Shaw Bros. studio, where he worked under the well-known martial-arts director Chang Cheh, who taught Woo many things (the most important being editing). By 1973, Woo started working on his first film as director, The Young Dragons, a fairly nondescript martial-arts film that also had a young Jackie Chan working on it (as the fighting coordinator).The film was thought to be too violent and was shelved for two years. Upon release of The Young Dragons and its success at the box office, Woo was hired by Golden Harvest, which, while viewed as a young upstart at the time, would go on to become one of Hong Kong's biggest studios in the mid-1980's.Woo went on to write and direct several more martial-ar ts films, including Hand of Death (1976) which not only starred Woo himself but also reunited him with Jackie Chan (who was in a starring capacity this time out) and featured future Hong Kong superstar Sammo Hung. Hand of Death was an important step in Woo's career and for introducing Woo's ideals about dictators and revolutionaries and brotherhood and loyalty (shown by Chan's character).After his initial kung-fu phase, he made a comedy called The Pilferer's Progress (1977) which became a huge success and gave Woo recognition as a comedy director. The one exception was Heroes Shed No Tears (1983), where Woo escaped from the kung-fu and comedy genres in an ultra-violent tale of mercenaries sent to capture a drug lord deep inside Vietnam. He has called it his â€Å"first real movie†.There is something deeper to the obvious joy Woo finds in filmmaking and the intense bonds fostered on the film set. More important to Woo than being applauded for his maverick style, is the pleasur e in collaboration with his crew and actors, the thrill of making movies and paying tribute to a lost chapter in American historyWoo discussed his own reasons behind making the movie: Comedies and Kung Fu films dominated Hong Kong cinema in the mid-eighties. Other genres rarely got the support of the studio and the audience. And also, right before ‘A Better Tomorrow,' he shot two films in Taiwan, that were commercially unsuccessful; so it seemed quite impossible for him to make the films. He felt that Hong Kong at that time was seriously lacking in moral values. So he wanted to make an uplifting film to highlight the lost traditional values, including the values of family, friendship, tolerance etc.and Hark continued to team together and produced some of the landmark titles of the â€Å"heroic bloodshed† genre, which combined Scoresian-style relationships and themes, such as friendship and loyalty, with Peckinpah-style â€Å"ultraviolence.†ABT† also (probab ly permanently) linked Woo with leading man Chow Yun-Fat. With the success of ABT, He eventually moved on to create Just Heroes (1987) as a sort of benefit project for his aging mentor Chang Cheh.The film, a loose retelling of Shakespeare's King Lear set within a Triad â€Å"family,† was actually a joint project between Woo and his friend Wu Ma (who was having financial troubles at the time). As such, even though it features big Hong Kong stars such as Danny Lee and Woo's now-typical explosive gunfight sequences, the film lacked the focus of ABT and was a disappointment for Woo. He did enjoy some aspects of filming Just Heroes. After Just Heroes, Woo struggled to find another project.He wanted to stay away from ABT, but the film's popularity (teenagers took to dressing like Mark Gor, something which got Woo in trouble with politicians, who accused him of glorifying the Triad lifestyle) and Tsui Hark's constant prodding eventually convinced Woo to do the sequel. â€Å"ABT2â⠂¬  features a high-powered finale with one of the highest body counts per minute recorded on film and was another huge hit for Woo. However, things behind the scenes were not so rosy.Woo felt the characters in ABT were under-developed and were against any changes. Despite its status now as a classic, The Killer (which is Woo's favourite movie, since he feels that the characters are fully developed) flopped in Hong Kong. Many people thought the film is too serious and just not very â€Å"fun† to watch. However, Woo was gaining international recognition. At the age of 44, his contemporaries were calling Woo a â€Å"wunderkind† and he finally started to think of him as a success.After a series of disputes over â€Å"A Better Tomorrow III†, Woo and Hark parted ways. After being virtually blackballed from most of the major studios, Woo eventually formed his own production company with his new business partner Terence Chang.Woo used his new company to produce his ve rsion of the â€Å"ABTIII† script, which he reworked into â€Å"Bullet in the Head†. BITH is, by Woo's own account, his most personal film to date. While BITH is regarded as one of Woo's best films, again the local audience didn't like it.This time, the intense riot scenes were just too much for a people still reeling from the Tiannemen Square Massacre. Woo was forced to shoot another ending only a few official copies of Woo's original vision survive today. Woo's next film was 1991's Once a Thief, a breezy comedy/action/romance.While not a huge hit, Once a Thief did well enough at the box office to gain Woo funding for his next movie, â€Å"Hard-Boiled† (1992). Again though, Hard-Boiled was not popular with the Hong Kong people. Many felt Woo was becoming too dark and over-the-top, however, as with Woo's previous films, Hard-Boiled has become known as a classic in the action genre, both in Hong Kong and around the world.After attracting Hollywood's attention[2], John Woo was invited by Universal to direct the Jean-Claude Van Damme vehicle Hard Target in 1993. Woo clashed with the studio heads many times during the making of the picture, mostly due to the fact that his initial edits failed to produce a â€Å"R† rated picture.Eventually, Hard Target was taken out of Woo's hands and chopped down by the studio itself (after even â€Å"the muscles from Brussels† Van Damme had a shot in editing the film) to produce a â€Å"suitable† cut. In 1996, after receiving CineAsia's prestigious Lifetime Achievement Award, he finished working on Broken Arrow, which teamed him with American pop icon John Travolta.Face/Off (1997), which would go on to surpass the â€Å"hit† mark for American movies film awards, winning the â€Å"Best On-Screen Duo† and â€Å"Best Action Sequence† at the 1997 MTV Movie Awards.   He has directed two pilots for television, John Woo's Once a Thief (based on the Hong Kong movie) and Bla ckjack, and has become an executive producer, lending his name to The Replacement Killers (which was Chow Yun-Fat's American debut) and The Big Hit.The influence of Woo's films is quite easy to see, especially in his native Hong Kong; by 1988. In western countries such as America, the effects were more subtle. For example, the â€Å"mindless killing machine† personified by John Rambo (Sylvester Stallone) in 1985's Rambo.The trend continues today; very rarely do we see a hero in American films such as Clint Eastwood's â€Å"Dirty† Harry Callahan (a virtual icon for 1970's and 80's American action movies) who kill with no remorse.The Killer as one of his favourite movies. In fact, the â€Å"black suits with skinny ties look† popularized by Tarantino's Reservoir Dogs and Pulp Fiction was first used in Woo's A Better Tomorrow II (as an interesting side note, two characters in the Tarantino-scripted film True Romance are watching ABTII on television during one scene in the movie).Woo is also known for the â€Å"Mexican standoff,† where one or more characters have a â€Å"dead lock† on one another. Woo's innovative editing techniques, such as the use of â€Å"wipes† and freeze-frames (which were considered by many American editors to be â€Å"hokey† and â€Å"too TV†) have also become mainstays of American action cinema, as has Woo's use of slow-motion to add dramatics to his action sequences. It is because of all of these influences that many consider John Woo to be an auteur.John Woo, after many years of hard work, has become known as the world's best action film directors. His action sequences have become the stuff of legend and are now the basis from which all other action movies are judged. More importantly, along with the bloodshed, Woo has proven that he can create real characters with real emotions that the audience can sympathize with. Perhaps that is his greatest talent, and perhaps that is why he wil l become known as an auteur in the years to come.References1) Bordwell, David and Thompson, Kristin. Film Art: An Introduction. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994; pp.492-495.2) Brieglieb, Volker. hardboiled.de. Internet document. Found at: http://www.hardboiled.de/man.Cinema of Vengeance, directed by Toby Russell. Xenon Home Video, England, 1994.3)Gaschler, Thomas. E-mail conversations conducted with the author, September 2000.Hard Boiled, DVD commentary and notes from John Woo and Terence Chang. Criterion, United States, 1998.4)Hoover, Michael and Odham-Stokes, Lisa. City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema. Verso, New York, 1999; pp. 38-64[1] John Woo's illustrious career as a filmmaker began in Hong Kong, where he spent over two decades at the centre of a thriving film industry directing nearly 30 feature films. He was known primarily as a comedy specialist until the mid-1980s when he created a series of inspired romantic and violent gangster dramas that broke box-office records.[2]   John Woo made his reputation as an action film director in Hong Kong during the 1980s, but since 1992 has worked in Hollywood directing big-budget thrillers such as Face/Off (1997, with John Travolta and Nicolas Cage) and Mission Impossible.

Monday, September 16, 2019

The Silver Linings Playbook Chapter 27

As If He Were Yoda and I Were Luke Skywalker Training on the Dagobah System When we finish discussing our Kubb tournament victory and Mrs. Patel's extraordinary ability to render an exact likeness of Brian Dawkins's bust on the hood of a school bus, I pick the black recliner and tell Cliff I am a little depressed. â€Å"What's wrong?† he says, pulling the lever and raising his footrest. â€Å"Terrell Owens.† Cliff nods, as if he were expecting me to bring up the wide receiver's name. I did not want to talk about this earlier, but it was reported that Terrell Owens (or T.O.) tried to kill himself on September 26. News reports stated that T.O. overdosed on a pain medication. Later, after T.O. was released from the hospital, he said he did not try to kill himself, and then everyone began to think he was crazy. I remember T.O. as a young 49er, but Owens was not on the 49ers' roster when I watched the Eagles play in San Francisco a few weeks ago. What I learned from reading the sports pages was that T.O. had played for the Eagles when I was in the bad place, and he had helped the Birds get to Super Bowl XXXIX, which I do not remember at all. (Maybe this is good, since the Eagles lost, but not remembering still makes me feel crazy.) T.O. apparently held out for more money the next year, said bad things about Eagles QB Donovan McNabb, was suspended for the second half of the season, and then was actually cut from the team, so he signed with the very team Eagles fans hate most – the Cowboys. And because of this, everyone in Philadelphia currently hates T.O. more than just about anyone else on the planet. â€Å"T.O.? Don't worry about him,† Cliff says. â€Å"Dawkins is going to hit him so hard that Owens will be afraid to catch any balls at the Linc.† â€Å"I'm not worried about T.O. making catches and scoring touchdowns.† Cliff looks at me for a second, as if he does not know how to respond, and then says, â€Å"Tell me what worries you.† â€Å"My father refers to T.O. as a psychopathic pill popper. And on the phone this week, Jake also made jokes about T.O. taking pills, calling Owens a nutter.† â€Å"Why does this bother you?† â€Å"Well, the reports I read in the sports pages claimed that T.O. was possibly battling depression.† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"Well,† I say, â€Å"that would suggest maybe he needs therapy.† â€Å"And?† â€Å"If Terrell Owens is really depressed or mentally unstable, why do the people I love use it as an excuse to talk badly about him?† Cliff takes a deep breath. â€Å"Hmmm.† â€Å"Doesn't my dad understand that I'm a psychopathic pill popper too?† â€Å"As your therapist, I can confirm that you are clearly not psychopathic, Pat.† â€Å"But I'm on all sorts of pills.† â€Å"And yet you are not abusing your medications.† I can see what Cliff means, but he doesn't really understand how I feel – which is a mix of very complicated and hard-to-convey emotions, I realize – so I drop the subject. When the Dallas Cowboys come to Philadelphia, the fat men's tent and the Asian Invasion bus are combined to create a super party that again features a Kubb tournament on Astroturf, satellite television, Indian kabobs, and much beer. But I cannot concentrate on the fun, because all around me is hatred. The first things I notice are the homemade T-shirts other tailgaters are buying and selling and wearing. So many different slogans and images. One has a cartoon of a small boy urinating on the Dallas star, and the caption reads dallas sucks. t.o. swallows †¦ pills. Another shirt has a large prescription bottle with the universal skull-and-crossbones poison symbol on the label and terrell owens written underneath. Yet another version features the pill bottle on the front and a gun on the back, under which the caption reads T.O., if at first you don't succeed, buy a gun. A nearby tailgater has nailed T.O.'s old Eagles jersey to a ten-foot cross, which is also covered with orange prescription bottles that look exactly like mine. People are burning their old T.O. jerseys in the parking lot; human-size dolls in T.O. jerseys are strung up so people can hit them with bats. And even though I do not like any Dallas Cowboy, I feel sort of bad for Terrell Owens because maybe he really is a sad guy who is having trouble with his mind. Who knows, maybe he really did try to kill himself? And yet everyone mocks him, as if his mental health is a joke – or maybe they want to push him over the edge and would like nothing more than to see T.O. dead. Because of my poor throws, Cliff and I get knocked out of the Kubb tournament early, losing the five bucks my brother fronted me, and this is when Cliff asks me to help him move some India Pale Ale out of the Asian Invasion bus. When we are inside of the bus, he closes the door and says, â€Å"What's wrong?† â€Å"Nothing,† I say. â€Å"You weren't even looking to see where your batons landed, you were so distracted during the Kubb games.† I say nothing. â€Å"What's wrong?† â€Å"You're not in your leather seat.† Cliff sits down, pats the bus seat, and says, â€Å"Pleather will have to do today.† I sit down in the seat across from Cliff and say, â€Å"I just feel bad for T.O. That's all.† â€Å"He's getting millions of dollars to endure this type of criticism. And he thrives on it. He brings it on himself with those touchdown dances and the hoopla. And these people don't really want T.O. to die; they just don't want him to perform well today. It's all in good fun.† Now, I know what Cliff means, but it doesn't seem like good fun to me. And regardless of whether T.O. is a millionaire or not, I'm not sure T-shirts encouraging anyone to shoot himself in the head should be condoned by my therapist. But I don't say anything. Back outside the bus I see that Jake and Ashwini are in the final game of the Kubb tournament, so I try to cheer for them and block out the hatred that surrounds me. Inside the Linc, all throughout the first half, the crowd sings, â€Å"O.D. – O.D., O.D., O.D. – O.D. – O.D.† Jake explains that the crowd used to sing, â€Å"T.O. – T.O., T.O., T.O. – T.O. – T.O.† back when Owens was an Eagle. I watch Owens on the sideline, and even though he doesn't have many catches yet, he seems to be dancing to the rhythm of the crowd's O.D. song, and I wonder if he is really so immune to seventy thousand people mocking his near overdose or if he really feels differently inside. Again I can't help feeling bad for the guy. I wonder what I would do if seventy thousand people mocked my forgetting the last few years of my life. By halftime Hank Baskett has two catches for twenty-five yards, but the Eagles are losing 21 – 17. All throughout the second half, Lincoln Financial Field is alive; we Eagles fans know that first place in the NFC East is at stake. With just under eight minutes to go in the third, everything changes. McNabb throws a long one down the left side of the field. Everyone in my section stands to see what will happen. Number 84 catches the ball in Dallas territory, puts a move on the defender, takes off for the end zone, and then I am in the air. Under me are Scott and Jake. I'm riding high on their shoulders. Everyone in our section is high-fiving me because Hank Baskett has finally scored his first NFL touchdown – an eighty-seven-yarder – and of course I am wearing my Baskett jersey. The Eagles are winning, and I am so happy that I forget all about T.O. and start to think about my dad watching at home on his huge television, and I wonder if maybe the TV cameras caught me when I was riding high on Jake's and Scott's shoulders. Maybe Dad saw a life-size me celebrating on his flat screen, and maybe he is even proud. A series of tense moments get our hearts beating at the end of the fourth quarter, when Dallas is driving, down 31 – 24. A score will send the game into OT. But Lito Sheppard intercepts Bledsoe and returns the pick for a TD, and the whole stadium sings the Eagles fight song and chants the letters, and the day is ours. When the clock ticks down, I look for T.O. and see him sprint off the field and into the locker room without even shaking the hand of one single Eagle. I still feel bad for him. Jake and Scott and I exit the Linc and run into the Asian Invasion – which is easy to spot from far away because it consists of fifty Indian men, usually clumped together, all in Brian Dawkins jerseys. â€Å"Just look for fifty number 20's,† they always say. Cliff and I run up to each other and high-five and scream and yell, and then all fifty Indian men start chanting, â€Å"Baskett, Baskett, Baskett!† And I am so happy; I pick little Cliff up and hoist him onto my shoulders and carry him back to the Asian Invasion bus as if he were Yoda and I were Luke Skywalker training on the Dagobah System in the middle section of The Empire Strikes Back, which is – as I told you before – one of my all-time favorite movies. â€Å"E!-A!-G!-L!-E!-S! EAGLES!† we chant so many times as we navigate the crowds and find our way back to our spot behind the Wachovia Center, where the fat men are waiting with ice-cold celebration beers. I keep hugging Jake and hig h-fiving Cliff and chest bumping the fat men and singing with the Indians. I am so happy. I am so impossibly happy. When the Asian Invasion drops me off in front of my house, it's late, so I ask Ashwini not to blow the Eagles chant horn and he reluctantly agrees – although when the bus rounds the corner at the end of my street, I hear fifty Indian men chant, â€Å"E!-A!-G!-L!-E!-S! EAGLES!† I can't help smiling as I enter my parents' home. I am ready for Dad. After such a big win – a win that puts the Eagles in first place – surely Dad will want to talk to me. But when I enter the family room, no one is there. No beer bottles on the floor, no dishes in the sink. In fact, the whole house looks spotless. â€Å"Dad? Mom?† I say, but no one answers. I saw both of their cars in the driveway when I came home, so I am very confused. I begin to climb the steps, and the house is deadly quiet. I check my bedroom, and my bed's made and the room is empty. So I knock on my parents' bedroom door, but no one answers. I push the door open and immediately wish I hadn't. â€Å"Your father and I made up after the Eagles victory,† Mom says with a funny smile. â€Å"He aims to be a changed man.† The sheet is pulled up to their necks, but somehow I know my parents are naked underneath the covers. â€Å"Your boy Baskett healed the family,† my father says. â€Å"He was a god out there on the field today. And with the Eagles in first place, I thought, Why not make up with Jeanie?† Still, I cannot speak. â€Å"Pat, maybe you'd like to go for a run?† my mom suggests. â€Å"Maybe just a little half-hour run?† I close their bedroom door. While I change into a tracksuit, I think I hear my parents' bed squeak, and the house seems to shake a little too. So I slip on my sneakers and run down the stairs and out the front door. I sprint across the park, run around to the back of the Websters' house, and knock on Tiffany's door. When she answers, she's in some sort of nightgown and her face looks confused. â€Å"Pat? What are you – â€Å" â€Å"My parents are having sex,† I explain. â€Å"Right now.† Her eyes widen. She smiles and then laughs. â€Å"Just let me get changed,† she says, and then shuts the door. We walk for hours – all around Collingswood. At first I ramble on and on about T.O., Baskett, my parents, Jake, the Asian Invasion, my wedding pictures, my mother's ultimatum actually working – everything – but Tiffany does not say anything in response. When I run out of words, we simply walk and walk and walk, and finally we are in front of the Websters' house and it is time to say good night. I stick my hand out and say, â€Å"Thanks for listening.† When it is clear that Tiffany's not going to shake, I start to walk away. â€Å"Turn around, bright eyes,† Tiffany says, which is a very weird thing for her to say, because my eyes are brown and very dull, but of course I turn around. â€Å"I'm going to give you something that will confuse you, and maybe even make you mad. I don't want you to open it until you are in a very relaxed mood. Tonight is out of the question. Wait a few days, and when you are feeling happy, open this letter.† She pulls a white business envelope out of her jacket pocket and hands it to me. â€Å"Put it away in your pocket,† she says, and I do as I am told, mostly because Tiffany looks so deathly serious. â€Å"I will not be running with you until you give me your answer. I will leave you alone to think. Regardless of what you decide, you cannot tell anyone about what is inside of that envelope. Understand? If you tell anyone – even your therapist – I'll know by looking in your eyes, and I will never speak to you again. It's best if you simply fo llow my directions.† My heart is pounding. What is Tiffany talking about? All I want to do is open the envelope now. â€Å"You have to wait at least forty-eight hours before you open that. Make sure you are in a good mood when you read the letter. Think about it, and then give me your answer. Remember, Pat, I can be a very valuable friend to you, but you do not want me as an enemy.† I remember the story Ronnie told me about how Tiffany lost her job, and I begin to feel very afraid.