Saturday, December 29, 2018

Law and South African Education

The question here is whether the legal injury possessd was unjustified in the component part. In the absence of wrongfulness (egg where there was no plan to harm) a defendant may non be held credible. 4 The symbolize must(prenominal) be the result of gaolbreak in the ferment of intent (dolls) or disuse (culpa). Fault refers to the blameworthy at embraceude or behaviour of or soone who has exemplifyed wrong experty. (4) on that point is a causative link between the conduct of the perpetrator and the harm suffered by the victim. In general, it should be sh make that the souls f rightfulness did result from the actions of the person charged with disregard.In other words, there must be a clear causal relationship between the act and the suffering. A person skunknot be liable if he or she has not nonplusd each damage. (5) pastel is a wrongful and culpable act which has a harmful consequence. Damages (causing harm) in the form of patrimonial (material) wrong o r informational loss must be symbolise. There must be a familiarity between the cargonless conduct and the injury (physical or mental). To receive an award for restitution, a plaintiff must have suffered an injury as a result of the defendants negligent conduct. The plaintiff must prove that nearly damage occurred.Although the injury or damage does not bespeak to be unspiritual for an award to be ordered, the injury must be satisfying rather than imagined. The addresss are generally reluctant to award remediation where there is not whatsoever form of injury. Educators may be found at fault of remissness if they give off to provide neat supervision fail to aid the injure or ill permit scholars to fiddle unsafe games fail to provide adequate to(predicate) instructions take unreasonable risks fail to organize field trips justly on the whole these elements must be taken into rumination when answering the question. Ask questions such as, who was wrong, who is liable and why?Support your answer tit the requirements for dedicate liability as say above. TOEHOLD/202 5 Question 2. 2 explanation on the opening move of contributory fault on the break up of the scholar. In this chemise negligence is one form of fault. A negligent pedagogue might not be held liable if a learner contributed to the injury by his or her own negligence. In other words, if a learner fails to exercise the degree of mete out usually expected of a person of that age, familiarity and experience the coquette may locate that owing to the learners contributory negligence/fault, the pedagogue is not solely liable for remedy resulting from an injury by his or her act.Contributory negligence could be important in situations involving erstwhile(a) learners, especially if such learners understand the full implications of their actions. On the other hand, young children cannot be expected to fully comprehend the consequences of some of their actions and behavior. Comments T here have already been a number of cases involving sport in to the south African legal history. The principles of the rectitude of subtle apply to sport as they would to any other scenario in society.This would relate to 3 potential areas, namely, personal injury, violence and knockout injury The law of delicate is a section of private law. This branch of law deals with civil wrongs against another person that cause the injured party to go to court to seek compensation from the wrongdoer for damages. If an educator creates a potential droply dangerous situation, and and then fails to remove the danger, which then results in loss or damage being caused to another, he/she will be held liable for such loss or damage.A legal vocation rests on the educator to prevent the potential danger from becoming a real danger. A delicate has 5 name elements that must be present. These are (a) An act (b) Wrongfulness (c) Fault (d) Damage/ acquittance (e) Causation. Each of these elements mus t be present before a person can be held liable in delicate. 6 In participating voluntarily in a game, the victim therefore consents to the possibility of injury and limits the possibility of pursuing a dialectal claim. Thus, contributory negligence involves some form of fault (in the form of negligence) on the part of the injured person.The injured person failed to exercise the required standard of care for his or her own safety. Contributory negligence comes into play when conduct on the part of the injured person contributes to his or her injuries. When the court has to determine the damages, it will reduce the damages apportioned to the plaintiff in equilibrium to his or her own fault (e. G. character to his or her own injuries) In , the law does not expect educators to anticipate either stroke, but I them to behave as reasonable people.It is easy to anticipate the poss. of an accident involving educators and children if a group of children supervised, if a minibus that tran sports children is not maintained or equipment is not properly stored. Only in the case of a truly unexpected be possible to assert that it was not reasonable to predict harm. To educator can reasonably be expected to foresee dangers and anticipate seem on the facts of the case and on the circumstances (e. G. The n school activity, the location of the school or the age of the learners).In you will need to be able to define and explicate didactics and legal concepts and principles identify and apologize the purpose of important legislation wrangle and interpret the relevant sections of the South African Echo discuss and apply greenness law principles to practical situations (egg t indwelling Justice, memo dudes in USA cause and stare decides principle) illustrate your answers by referring to examples from education practice 2. 4 Reading and construe questions

Friday, December 28, 2018

Language acquisition Essay

Contemporary interrogationers, who atomic number 18 interested in the lyric teaching, ELT publishing, secant run-in acquisition and the theory of quarrel in general while referring the attend of a set about spiel work on a unconnected lyric poem teaching, usu aloney apply the harm diction Interference, Cross-Linguistic Influence, or Transfer. All of the terms demand that the oral communication produced by outside students is that all the styles of the world have similarities which make a unconnected spoken communication more than well-known(prenominal) to a disciplineer. Thus, while learning a extraneous speech communication students try to give ear for similarities with their set out lingua.These similarities in many cases figure on individual perceptions and in this authority can be deceptive. Modern scientists offer that the idea that the language produced by alien learners can never be pure, it is ineluctably influenced by learners mother tongue. S ometimes mother tongue affects learning a immaterial language so much, that the foreign language becomes distorted. So, the foreign language learnt should be improve termed an inter-language and, as Nicholls, D points out in the article What is learner side of meat? , it the foreign language learnt willing always be a blend of the foreign language and the mother tongue. (Nicholls 2002). As it was already mentioned above, the similarities constitute between a mother tongue and the foreign language a bar and a help, causing positive and interdict impartation. (Nicholls 2002). Positive transfer is found in correct guesses, and the prompts, which help a learner to get the things right. Though positive transfer is a rich argona of study, it is non in the scope of the study of the paper. move on the paper will discuss the blackball transfer or the language encumbrance that causes the learner errors in the process of a foreign language acquisition.In the theater of contempor ary education, the slope language produced by learners is referred as learner English. An contend term to learner English is Non-learner English, the meaning of those is closely connected with the beliefs ensample English and correct variant of English. So, following the ideas of scientists, the English produced by learners will always be foreign. In order to make the further research more clear, it is necessary to define the briny terms of the theory. runner off of all of all, the theory of language interference operates with the notions first language and foreign language.Walters K. and Brody M. in their article Whats language got to do with it? define first language as the first language acquired by a psyche since his/her birth or puerility. If a someone learns two or more languages in his/her infancy, then the person is considered to have two or more first languages. (Walters and Brody 2005) In this way, the term First Language is very close to the terms Native Language and Mother play. However, the notion of mother tongue presupposes that the person learns the languages from infancy in the home.(Walters and Brody 2005) All in all, native language, as well mother tongue, and first language are learnt by a child mostly unconsciously and involuntary. A child may learn his/her mother tongue even if no special attempts at teaching are made. Also, the first language serves as a spoken medium of communication and is mostly achieved from random exposure. (Encyclopedia Britannica 2004). In contrast to the first language, foreign language is taught purposefully. It is not ineluctably acquired in ones childhood or in ones home.Walters K. and Brody M. write about a foreign language it is larn or use by a person for throttle and/or specific purposes such as business transactions or reading. A foreign language is not learned with the in-tent of using it extensively in unremarkable life. (Walters and Brody 2005) So, another difference is found out. The first language is used in a persons everyday life, whereas the spheres of manipulation of a foreign language are limited by place and by time. In other words, students speak or think in a foreign language during their lessons and at their classroom.When the lesson of a foreign language is all over, students naturally go cover charge to their mother tongue. This feature, certainly, gives more advantages to students mother tongue and encourages them to use their native language in a wider range, more extensively. The uttermost(a) not only fosters better emergence of a mother tongue in comparison with that of a foreign language, just also it puts the mother tongue in a dominating position over the foreign language. However, the notion of foreign language should not be confused with the notion of second language.

Advances in technology

This creative activity goes done a lot of changes as succession goes on. Changes in engineering science apprise chance on a brighter future for individuals. Because of pass offs in technology, this universe is becoming more effective and saving us money in the long-run with fuel, electricity, communication, etc. The social life-style of an individual involves technology in some(prenominal) behavior. Technology has become a destiny in these modern days and it is dismissal to become more advanced as date goes on. With these advances in technology, the social lifestyles of individuals green goddess be simpler. Technology moves our world out front nto a new and advanced era.Without technology, we would severally be stuck in the same time as our ancestors. Technology is a very(prenominal) good topic for people anywhere and everywhere, no matter how old, it helps us in every aspect of our daily lives, and it is a thing that cannot be lived without. Technology has umpt een branches and levels, from cell phones to the internet and even for medical examination purposes. However, cell phones and the internet have interpreted the main role in changing our society. I find it truly astonish that a person from China is competent to talk to a person from the join States, all hrough the internet.Programs such as facebook make finding an old childhood maven extremely easy, all that is to be make is type in their name. The advantages of technology embroil better health facilities due to increase disease diagnosis using technology and immediate as well as more accurate business results and solutions through technology. Technology has also enabled the automation of manual of arms work thus saving time and money. It has boosted the entertainment through games and computer programs as well as increase in economy growth due to faster and easier usiness.Without technology in our lives, our world we be a very different place. non only does technology prov ide us with a new and improved way to communicate, is gives us new and exciting ways to research and regain ideas out to the world faster. Technology is only going to get better and better as each day progresses and with the appropriate efforts and integrating it into the classroom entrust enhance education forever. Our advance in technology has and always will be a good thing that will always benefit our world. Peoples lives atomic number 18 becoming simpler.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Zappos\r'

'Zappos was founded by notch Swinmurn in 1999. The initial inspiration came when he couldn’t find a duplicate of brown Airwalks at his local m any. That aforesaid(prenominal) year, Swinmurn approached Tony Hsieh and Alfred Lin with the idea of selling shoes on attract. The partnership was offici entirelyy launched in June 1999, under the cow dreader domain name â€Å"ShoeSite.com. A fewer months after their launch, the smart sets name was changed from ShoeSite to Zappos so as not to limit itself to selling single footwear.In January 2000, Venture Frogs invested additional capital, and drop by the waysideed Zappos to move into their office space. During this time, Hsieh found that he â€Å"had the most(prenominal) mutation with Zappos” and came on board as co-CEO with notch Swinmurn. After minimal gross gross sales in 1999, Zappos brought in $1.6 million in r regular(a)ue in 2000 (Chafkin, 2006). Culture of ZapposCulture faeces be defined as the rotary of key values, assumptions, understandings, and norms that is sh atomic number 18d by members of an institution and taught to new members as correct. Your socialisation or work environs volition bounce based on all of the values, experiences, knowledge, and training of your existing workforce. How people work unitedly and especially, the values of the participations founders or attracters forms the assimilation you have. Zappos consciously creates and reinforces its corporate refining. The work environment take into accountd for employees wont attract every job searcher and its not for every employee.The people who equate the corporate finish thrive running(a) for Zappos. In an interview with Rebecca Henry, the former manager of Human Resources for Zappos, two key factors stood start. The confederacy consciously decides what the corporate culture necessarily to look akin and it consciously reinforces and bread and butters that culture through all Human Resource s and counselling work systems. At Zappos.com, they decided a long time ago that they didn’t want the print to be still nigh shoes, or clo intimacy, or even online retailing. It decided that they cherished to build our steel to be about the very outmatch customer utility and the very crush customer experience.Zappos has a very wholesome count that customer service shouldn’t be just a  section; it should be the entire lodge. Advertising merchantman only get your brand so far. If you enquire most people what the â€Å"brand” of the airline industry as a whole is (not any specific airline, further the entire industry), they will usually af sign something about bad customer service or bad customer experience. If you ask people what their perception of the US railroad car industry is today, chances are the responses you get won’t be in line with what the automakers project in their advertising (Zappos Corporate. (2009-2013).At Zappos, the company’s belief is that if you get the culture right, most of the other stuff like great customer service, or make a great long-term brand, or spendionate employees and customers will happen course on its own. It’s said to believe that your company’s culture and your company’s brand are really just two sides of the same coin. The brand may lag the culture at first, but eventually it will catch up.SignsOne of the challenges in workplaces today is keeping employees engaged. In the Zappos Family of Companies, the culture enables employees to live and work harmonize to their personal values. Zappos hire based on alignment with their 10 Core determine and fit for the culture. This helps increase merchandiseivity, communication, and creativity, while reducing sick time and turn all over.Here are louvre ways Zappos work environment fosters naturally engaged employees who are passionate about what they do: let employees be themselves, let employees explor e their passions and express creativity, empower employees with tools to succeed, provide opportunities for continuous learning and inspire and allow employees to fulfill their higher purpose. These signs of culture read that Zappos don’t just wield about customers, they also make positive(predicate) that their employees are working in a comfortable environment (Zappos Corporate. (2009-2013).FactorsThe best thing about the Zappos Family is the unique culture. As the company grows they don’t want to set down that culture, as well as wanted a way to share it with all employees and anyone else who touches Zappos.com. Zappos created ten core values to to a greater extent clearly define what exactly the Zappos Family culture is (Zappos Corporate. (2009-2013). They are reflected in everything we do and every interaction we have. The core values are always the framework from which make all of decisions.Leader RoleBecoming a leader at Zappos the unmarried will indeed need to pass certain qualifications. Because of the company high visibility and outstanding works, a leader will need to know these few pointers: cause Wow Through Service, Embrace and hire Change, Create Fun and a superficial Weirdness, Be Adventurous, Creative and Open-Minded, Pursue proceeds and Learning, reach Open and Honest Relationships with Communication, Build a Positive Team and Family Spirit, Do More with Less, Be Passionate and obdurate and Be Humble. If he or she has these qualities I think they will suite the leadership duty at Zappos.Decline in ProductEventually, technical advances, changing customer demographics, tastes, or sprightlinessstyles, and phylogeny of substitutes result in declining demand for most product forms and brands. As a product starts to decline, managers face the critical question of whether to ransack or liquidate the business. Unfortunately, firms sometimes support dying products too long at the expense of current profitability and the tru culent pursuit of future breadwinners (Mullins. (2013).An appropriate marting strategy can, however, produce substantial sales and profits even in a declining market. If few exit barriers exist, an industry leader might attempt to increase market share via aggressive pricing or promotion policies aimed at driving out weaker competitors. Or it might try to consolidate the industry, as Johnson Controls has done in its self-propelled components businesses, by acquiring weaker brands and reducing smash-up by eliminating both excess condenser and duplicate marketing programs (Mullins. (2013).Alternatively, a firm might decide to harvest a mature product by maximising cash flow and profit over the product’s remaining life. The extend section of this chapter examines specific marketing strategies for gaining the greatest possible returns from products approaching the end of their life cycle (Mullins. (2013).\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'Vygotsky Learning Theory\r'

'Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky developed a take heeding possibleness for edu sanctifyion based on ace’s refining in the 1920s and 1930s. Even without a psychology background, he became fascinated by the subject. During his improvident life, he was influenced by the abundant brotherly and political upheaval of the Marxist Revolution. by and by his death in 1934, his ideas were rejected by the U. S. S. R. and only resurfaced after the Cold struggle ended in 1991. Vygotsky’s opening has exceedingly influenced edu vagabondion in Russia and in other countries. Lev Vygotsky was born in Orsha, western sandwich Russia, which is now Belarus in 1896.Vygotsky was born into a typical middle-class Jewish family and grew up in a predominantly Jewish town of Gomel, roughly four one hundred miles from Moscow (Kouzlin, 1990). He studied and gradational law from the University of Moscow on a Jewish scholarship. After graduation, he nimble his first research project in the psycho logy field in 1925 with The psychological science of Art, which was not published until the 1960s. Some cadence later, he became a psychologist working with Alexandar Luria and Alexei Leontiev (Gallagher, 1999). Lev Vygotsky’s socio civilisation theory begs to answer the question: What is culture and why is it weighty to a electric shaver’s learning.Dr. Diane Bukatko, psychology professor, assigns culture is â€Å"the more facets of the environment that humans have created and dwell to produce. . . But even more importantly, culture includes language and the practices, values, and beliefs accumulated and communicated from one coevals to the next” (Bukatko, 2004). Vygotsky’s theory places an violence on the learner’s culture. Vygotsky believed that the â€Å" squirt’s cognitive evolution essentialiness be understood in the capacity of the culture in which he or she lives” (Bukatko, 2004).That is to say, he believed that a c law is determine by his or her own culture. Vygotsky believed that the brotherly activity with â€Å"children, cargongivers, peers, and tutors cultivate in them the especial(a) skills and abilities their cultural group values” (Bukatko, 2004). This amicable activity is the backbone to his theory. Vygotsky had two important theories of cognitive development: the more(prenominal) wise to(p) Other and the govern of Proximal learning. The More Knowledgeable Other simply path that this is a person that has a higher(prenominal) understanding that the learner.This may be t apieceer to student or it suffer be student to student. Vygotsky’s other study theory, Zone of Proximal emergence is the â€Å" nosepiece or disparity between what children are able to do without the swear outance of others and what they are often able to accomplish by having someone more expect assist them at key points” (Bukatko, 2004). Vygotsky believed that the most in force(p) in struction took place just meagrely above the learner’s sure ability. There was a study through with(p) in which children were asked which items of wooden furniture when into a doll house.Some children were allowed to play with their mother, the More Knowledgable Other, in advance they attempted it alone, while others were only allowed to do it by themselves. It was found that those who had previously worked with a More Knowledgable Other showed extensiveest improvement with their attempt than those who did not (McLeod, 2007). The most important of Vygotsky’s theories in regards to education is his Zone of Proximal Development. It gives the educator a home defining what the learner is able to happen upon with or without assistance and exactly at what level he or she can attain.Based on his ZPD, Vygotsky believed that play is a â€Å"fomite for a child behaving more maturely than at other times” and in play â€Å"children can work at the top of their Zone of Proximal Development” (Vygotsky, 1978). Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development shows what a child can learn with assistance. This can be a great tool in the teacher’s proverbial toolbox. His theories also gives a great understanding in children learning from each other and from the teacher based on the More Knowledgeable Other and sociocultural understanding.Language and thought is sometimes believed to develop together. A child knows what a cat is in advance he can actually say the word. If the parent asks the child where the cat is, the child is able to point and correctly stigmatize the cat (assuming they have a cat as a pet, of course). This is directly in opposition to his idea that the child must know the spoken word â€Å"cat” before the child learns the concept. Vygotsky also believed that one’s culture is the defining growth characteristic in language and development. However, his theory states little on biological factors.\r\n'

'Internal Control Essay\r'

'1. Inform the death chair of each new interior(a) visualize requirements if the association decides to go public. As per the accident that happened in the connection about well-nigh employees was analyze pornography on comp both computing device and he had a hard conviction to get his employees admitted that they were the single who doing it. He should commit limit find by separate passwords for each psyche to log in the computing machine systems. To make original that which soulfulness was log on in the computer and do bad thing during that period.\r\n2. discuss the President of what the company is doing right (they atomic number 18 doing some things well) and also suggest to the President whether or non they should acquire the unerasable ink machine. When your advice the President, please be sure to reference the applicable indwelling look into ruler that applies.\r\nFrom the passage that the accountant has latterly started using prenumbered invoices quest by the normal of internet assure activities.\r\nPlease come the Documentation Procedures passage below.\r\nFrom the passage, the president wants to buy an indelible ink machine to mug their checks. In my opinion, I would like to recommend that he should buy an indelible ink machine following by the principle of internal control activities.\r\nPlease encounter the Physical Controls passage below.\r\nPrinciples of internal control activities\r\nDocumentation Procedures\r\nCompanies should establish procures for documents. First, whenever possible, companies should use up prenumbered documents, and each(prenominal) documents should be account for. Prenumbering helps to prevent a transaction from world preserve more than than once, or conversely, from not bring recorded at all. Second, the control system shown that employees should immediately forward source documents for history entries to the accounting entries to the accounting department. This control measure helps to operate timely recording of the transaction and contributes instanter to the accuracy and reliability of the accounting record. ingest use prenumbered checks and account for them in era; each check must put iodine across an extold invoice; require employees to use corporate credit cards for reimbursable expenses; cast invoices â€Å"paid”.\r\nPhysical Controls\r\nStore blank space checks in safes, with limited rile; bring out check amounts by machine in indelible ink.\r\n3. Advise the President of what the company is doing wrong (they atomic number 18 definitely doing some things poorly). Please be sure to acknowledge the internal control principle that is being violated along with a testimonial for improvement.\r\nFollowing from the passage that they incur bingle accountant who serves as Treasurer and mastery which streamlines many of their processes. In this dual role, he purchases all of the supplies and pays for these purchases. He also recieves the c hecks and completes the periodic bank recommendation. The accountant is so industrious that the company handels pretty cash a bit differently.\r\nHe should asign duties to more than one person not only one because it hard for one person to control and serves as treasurer and controller in the same time.\r\nFollowing by Principles of internal control activities. Please find separatism of Duties and Establishment of Responsibility passage below.\r\nFrom the following passage that all employees have access to the petty cash in a desk drawer and argon asked to only baffle a note if they use any of the cash. In my opinion, he should limit access to the petty cash in a desk drawer, only one person could have responsible for the petty cash. Following by Principles of internal control activities. Please see the Establishment of Responsibility passage below.\r\nPrinciples of internal control activities\r\nSegregation of Duties\r\n disparate individuals approve and make payments; check sin gers do not record disbursements Segregation of duties is indispensable in an internal control system. There are two common applications of this principle: 1. Different individuals should be responsible for cerebrate activities. 2. The debt instrument for record-keeping for an asset should be separate from the natural custody of that asset.\r\nThe rational for segregation of duties is this: The massage of one employee should, without a duplication of effort, go forth a reliable basis for evaluating the study of another employee. Segregation of related activities fashioning one individual responsible for related activities increases the potential for errors and irregularities.\r\nEstablishment of Responsibility\r\nAn prerequisite principle of international control is to allot responsibility to specific employees. Control is around effective when only one person is responsible for given task. Establishing responsibility lots requires limiting access only to authorized perso nnel, and then identifying those personnel. Only designated personnel are authorized to sign checks (treasurer) and approve vendors. differentiate checks to invoices; reconcile bank statement periodical\r\n'

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'People Have Become Overly Dependent on Technology Essay\r'

'1. Introduction\r\nThe start half-century ago, m many(prenominal) countries argon un genuine and developing. They fate to focus on the economic indicators such as GDP but without precaution closely environmental issues. Over the by three decades, people be macrocosm to link up about the environmental issues beca hold of asymmetry increase surrounded by economic and environmental. Recently, sustainable development was first accustomd in the 1980’s to express concern most the world. In this report is to identify the be strategies and practices within hotels through literature and incorporate communications materials. The report pass on subroutine the in-depth consultation and examine entropy and discuss the findings with the system. Finally, the report testament make a conclusion and recommendation for the selected topic.\r\nRead to a greater extent: Dependence on Technology hear\r\n2. Literature Re conniption\r\na) Definition of sustainable Developmen t\r\nSustainable development is a wider development which includes accessible and intrinsic capacities. establish on the Brundtland Commission in Kirk (1997), sustainable development â€Å"meets the inevitably of the present without pliant the ability of prox generations to meet their aver of necessity”. thither argon two tell excogitations to reach out it as headspring as adaptations to the touristry application in the form of sustainable touristry. i) the concept of ‘ carrys’, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding antecedence should be given; and ii) the idea of limitations impose by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.\r\nb) â€Å"Sustainable selling”\r\nMiddleton and Hawkins’s concept of sustainable marketing was environmental and pecuniary goals must balance beca theatrical role it depends on severally other. there atomic number 18 three â€Å"E”s to support the sustainable marketing system. i) Economy †it is making r howeverue or income; ii) Ecology †it is making environmental woodland; iii) Equity †it is giving a separate distribution of the benefits of touristry. Middleton and Hawkins said that a hotel’s marketing and design go forth locate the types of tourists, who entrust stay there, and what kinds of need they will have and what kind of cause they will have on the topical anesthetic environment.\r\nMiddleton and Hawkins similarly honor 10 â€Å"R”s for organizations to achieve the sustainable marketing strategy. They argon: Recognize environmental problems, Refuse any damaging activities, Reduce waste and resources, flip-flop environmentally hesitationable activities, Re-use †consider of re- development dominance waste, Recycle, Re-engineer organizational structures, Retrain employees in environmental issues, Reward successful attainment of environmental objectives, Reeducate employees and customers, to benefit the environment.\r\nAgenda 21 as well as suggested the actions can be do by public. There atomic number 18: assessment of the electrical capacity of the finis’s systems to become sustainable; training, education, and public aw areness; facilitating ex vary of sustainable tourism knowledge between developed and developing countries; providing for the participation of all heavenss of federation; design of new tourism products; beat progress.\r\nc) Environmental management system (ISO 14001)\r\nISO 14001 is for environmental management. Its standards or guidelines to help organizations by standardizing virtually key environmental analysis besidesls. It to a fault guides the organization to have a masterly environmental management system, and meet customers, effort, and canon limits.\r\nUnder the ISO14001, companies need to do are as follows: i) minimize harmful final r esults on the environment caused by its activities; ii) to conform to applicable regulatory requirements; iii) to achieve persistent improvement of its environmental performance.\r\n3. Methodology\r\nIt is victimisation soft regularity to make a research. There are different types of qualitative research methods including in-depth interrogates, focus pigeonholings, case studies, ethnography and phenomenology. Our group is choosing in-depth query for this report. In-depth Interview\r\nAn in-depth oppugn is an unrestricted, discovery-oriented method that is well suited for describing both(prenominal) program processes and outcomes from the perspective of the tar place wonder or key stakeholder. The goal of the interview is to explore the respondent’s identify of view, feelings and perspectives deeply.\r\nAdvantages of in-depth interview\r\n1) Learning about the respondents’ views\r\nIt is non similar with focus group which focuses on the group mainly. It makes the effective qualitative method by receiving respondents’ perspective, feelings and recommendations. It gives an opportunity of how people exempt things too.\r\n2) Precise and detailed information\r\nThere is little cadence delay between the interviewee and interviewer that can wait on the question today and the process is spontaneous. The interview can be recorded by in memorialize with the permission of the respondents. So, the information will more precise and detailed with using this method and running smooth when having the interview.\r\n3) Dispassionate impression\r\nSome people will abnormal by others’ view point when they answer questions. However, in-depth interview will non materialize during the interview.\r\nDisadvantages of in-depth interview\r\n1) Slow process\r\nAn in-depth interview is a slow process because the respondents will spend a great deal more age to explain some jargons or analyze his/her opinions. Interviewer hunt downs a n important power in in-depth interview.\r\n2) Respondents’ view whitethorn distract the main inwardnessed\r\nRespondents will non concentrate on the main content of the interview or may not serve the think of the fetching an interview. So interviewer need to cue the interviewees concentrate back up to the main content of the topic. In order to prevent macrocosm enjoin to wrong direction, group as well as needs to sieve unwanted information from the interview.\r\n3) Side tracking from the answer\r\nInterviewer should use both tape recording and notes taking which decrease the possibilities of side tracking the intervention during the interview. Otherwise, the report may be directed to the wrong direction too.\r\nb) S adenosine monophosphateling and selective information Collecting Method\r\nTo enrich our data and information, we invited interviewees who are hotels’ managers in Hong Kong. They are: i) Leanne Chan †communication theory Manager at Island Shangri-La Hong Kong, ii) Karen Wong †communication theory Manager at L’hotel Island South, iii) Eric Chan †selling Manager at Hotel Nikko Hong Kong\r\nWe sent some 10 letters to target hotel which mystify ISO 14001 certification. After some days, we received some reply from hotels. Then we sent back an invitation letters to explain the reason in conducting this research. Finally, three successful invitations we invited with a 20 minutes in-depth interview.\r\nThe below questions are on the watch by the group. The questionnaire is less structure. The in-depth interview aims to be semi-structured that can explore more during the interview.\r\n1) wherefore this pains is a focus of ontogeny environmental concern? 2) What is the role of the hotel sector in tourism development, and/or sustainable development in a voice or nation? 3) Is the customer grease ones palms behavior to stimulate tourism assiduity to concern about environmental resistance? 4) What is the response of the cordial reception and tourism industry to achieve the sustainable development?\r\nThose questions are open-ended questions in order to get a range of answers from the interviewees. Interviewees will not affect by others’ point of views during the in-depth interview, thus, open-ended questions is suitable for it. Interviewer will collect a range of data for analysis and discussion.\r\n4. qualitative Data Analysis and Discussion\r\n organisation concern about environmental tax shelter\r\nThe tourism industry was originally cogitate on the industries such as difficult industry, whereas all people are concern about environmental effects. The tourism industry is the one of the focus industry, directly creating 218,000 jobs in Hong Kong and accounting for 9.5% of the Hong Kong’s GPD. Tourism is increasingly considered a power for economic development. This is grandness to concern about environmental protection because Hong Kong political science has to regulate and enforce jurisprudence for environmental protection as tourism develops. Air transport, as part of the industry, contributes significantly to tertiary environmental problems caused by different factors. Air transport generates the most carbon dioxide per passenger kilometer of all motive power methods, and is held responsible for 3.5% of global warming, fadelely to climb on to 15% by 2050 (Friends of the Earth, 2000).\r\nHotel plays key role in sustainable development\r\nThe tourism industry development is rapid increasing, oddly hotel industry play a key role in the development with a shape in GDP. However, tourism industry brings some conflicts to Hong Kong such as noise, space, wel remotee, swelling and so forth.\r\nThe encroachment of the hotel sector depends to a great degree on the types of tourists that are targeted. At one extreme the â€Å"explorers”, â€Å" natural state lover/anthropologist”, and â€Å"experiential” tourists make few demands on natural resources, expect less amenities and cultural facilities, also do not require arrive to the destination easily. At the other extreme, psychocentric tourists demand resources of the type, quality, and sum they enjoy at home. Depending on which segments targeted by hotels, therefore, environmental, economic, and socio-cultural impacts can be evaluated. Hotels have a considerable potential role in the development of the local economy.\r\nThis potential remains, however, mainly un trulyized with the exception of some exceptionally modern companies and those of the eco-tourism or sustainable tourism bent. Three environmentally-friendly hotels and related businesses that claim to use elements of sustainable development or environmental friendliness will now be examined such as establish an environmental policy, design an environmental planning, training staffs to kindle the awareness of environmental protection, operation supremacy and so on. â€Å"Green t ourists” stimulate hotels to â€Å"change”\r\nâ€Å"Green tourists” means people are concern about environmental issues including wildlife, transport, conservation, use of resources, pollution, anatomical structure and planning, sports activities, and practices of tourism firm themselves.\r\nRecently, customers’ bribe behavior tend to purchase environmentally friendly products. But there are some limitation to produce environmentally friendly products by hotels which are cost, persuasion, and competitiveness. However, hotels need to â€Å"change” their strategy for their products, otherwise, customer will not purchase those products without concern about environmental. There are some sources of effect on undecided consumer: i) pressure group such as Friends of the Earth, ii) personal innate experiences from friends, family and turners, iii) media such as newspaper, internet, iv) the tourism itself, and iv) government in destination country.\r\nT he response of the hospitality and tourism industry for sustainable products There are two basic methods to achieve green marketing. The first is â€Å"business as usual, colored green” where lip do and green marketing are added so the environment becomes another marketing tool. The molybdenum is a â€Å"fundamental change in attitude regarding the role of firms in congeneric to the environment”. A â€Å"fundamental” method may be termed sustainable business, incorporating concepts like â€Å"eco-efficiency”. It also obtains benefit from three aspects of sustainable development which are economy, environment, and social factors.\r\nanother(prenominal) response is ecotourism. There are hemorrhoid of definitions of the ecotourism. The Ecotourism Society, for instance, defines ecotourism as: â€Å"responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people” (Ecotourism Society, 2000). The identica l concepts within the ecotourism are including carrying capacity, conservation, education and/or interpretation, environmental impact assessments, limits of acceptable change, and visitor impact management.\r\n5. endpoint and Recommendations\r\na) Conclusion\r\nThe main conclusion is mention that the agreement on the sustainable development within tourism industry and much more significantly in the future. Hotels play a key role on the sustainable development; â€Å"green tourists” attract to â€Å"change” hotel attitude on environmental friendly; and hotel industry response positively with the sustainable development. The in-depth interview method is keen number of interviewees; some interviewees may not provide information deeply because of hiding or confidential information.\r\nb) Recommendation\r\n put up the interview\r\nThe team is less micturate for the interview. The team should make appointments with interviewees and without giving too much detail on the topic. And because read again the interview grid and memories it. The team also needs to furbish up the recorder, wear the casual dress.\r\nTo work the landing field immediately after finishes the interview\r\n first-class honours degree impressions after the interview are to be written right after interview as well as the same day. Also the transcription should be done as soon as potential after the interview. Other recommendation\r\n• Interviews are too short and do not able to get overflowing information expected; a good interview must hold at least(prenominal) one hour or even more, and result in a hand writing around thousand lines, which was far from the case for the majority of partners; • Lack of using follow up questions allowing a real conversation and a search in depth for useful explanations; • Not enough questions allowing understanding clearly what the interviewees told to the interviewer; • Probably not enough learning about the question before the interviews; • Some of the above difficulties may be due to the lack of spring experience by the persons who involved the interview, as well as to the limited time allowed per interview in the study.\r\n6. References\r\nBull, A. (1993). The economics of travel and tourism. Melbourne, Australia: Pitman Publishing.\r\nCooper, H. M. (1989). Integrating research: A guide for literature reviews (2nd edition). Newbury Park, CA: clear-sighted Publications.\r\nFletcher, K. (n.d). Striving for excellence: Communicating environmental quality in the hotel industry. London: planetary Hotels Environment Initiative.\r\nForte, J. (1994). Environmentally-friendly management in hotels. In B. Taylor, C. Hutchinson, S. Pollack, & R. Tapper (Eds.) Environmental way Handbook. Pitman Publishing.\r\nSmith, G. D., Arnold, D. R., & Bizzell, B. G. (1991). Business strategy and policy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.\r\nKirk, D. (1997) Environmental management for hotels. Oxford: Butterw orth Heinemann.\r\nKotler, P. (1999). merchandising: Millennium Edition. Prentice Hall.\r\nHughes, G. (1995). The cultural construction of sustainable tourism. Tourism oversight 16(1), 49- 59.\r\nAragón-Correa, J. A. (1998). strategic proactivity and firm approach to the natural environment. honorary society of Management Journal 41\r\nBoyd, S. W., & Butler R.W. (1996). Managing ecotourism: an opportunity spectrum approach. Tourism Management 17\r\nEcotourism Society (2000). Frequently asked questions. [On-line]. ready(prenominal): http://www.ecotourism.org/faq.html. Accessed 15/08/00.\r\nFriends of the Earth (2000). Plane demented: Airport growth in the UK. [On-line]. lendable: http://www.foe.co.uk/camps/attran/pubs/plane_intro.htm. Accessed 20/01/00.\r\n'

Sunday, December 23, 2018

'Nortel Case Report Essay\r'

'The ph peerlessr similarly utilize to be affiliated with AT& adenosine monophosphate;amp;T/Western voltaic until Western was oblige to cheat on its menace in 1949. In 1976, the lodge changed its c goodly up from northwesterlyern Electric to Northern telecom Limited, and shifted its c formerlyntration on digital technology. In 1977, Nortel introduced its DMS line of digital central knowledge domain power teleph unmatch open switches. Nortel ended its long relationship with AT&T in 1984, a year subsequently deregulation named. Bell Canada Enterprises the p atomic number 18nt beau monde to Northern telecommunication. In 1998, the corporation acquired quest Networks and changed its name to Nortel Networks.\r\nIn the belated 90’s, Nortel’s bargains of fiber middle network gear was predicted to help their bargains, plainly the grocery became saturated very quickly. At the height of Nortel’s depression blow years the fraternity amasse d for more than a third of the total valuation of all companies listed on the Toronto Stock throw (TSX), that once the Internet bubble passed, the go with fell into honest debacle. Nortel Networks Corporation, or formally known as Northern Telecom Limited was one of the titanicst telecommunications equipment companies in the world prior to its filing for misery protective coer on\r\nJanuary 14th, 2009. During times of authorityality, they specialized in multinational telecommunications equipment manufacturing. The conjunction is based in Canada erupt of Mississiauga, Ontario, Canada. Their biggest rival always was globose System Mobile (GSM). Through the proto(prenominal) 1990s, the compevery invested heavily in principle Division Multiple Access (CDMA) in attempt to grow in European and Asian food markets. This did non pan bulge out so headspring as Nortel’s losses amounted to $27. 3 billion by 2001â€causing them to lay off two-thirds of the workforce.\r \nFrom 2000 through with(predicate) 2003 there was a period of pecuniary ir state resulting from the work of the comp whatsoever’s administrators. Initially in 2000, they falsified their quartetth-quarter micturateings by $1 billion to meet market expectations and selectively reversing certain revenue entries. In 2002, administrators disc everyplaceed $300 one thousand billion in excess reserves being carried over and swept it under the rug for coming(prenominal) benefit in addition to establishing some other $151 one thousand thousand in unnecessary reserves. In 2003, administrators directed the release of at to the lowest degree $490 zillion of excess reserves to climb earning, fabricate internets, and devote bon physical exertions.\r\nLosses turned to profits during this year thanks to the shifty methods taking place. Later in that year, administrators wind instrument astray investors as to wherefore Nortel was admiting a supposedly â€Å"comprehens ive review” of its as laysâ€attributed by fictionalisement $948 million in liabilities. They said re instruction was caused solely by familiar control mis lay claims instead of the right that there was intentional im right discussion of reserves which needed to remain hidden. 2 On October 23rd, 2003, the company announced that Nortel would restate its fiscals for fiscal years 2000, 2001, and 2002.\r\nShortly after(prenominal) this re rehearsal, the major players of Nortel’s administration that were trustworthy for all of this were exposed through an commutative investigation. In March 2004, The CFO and comptroller were suspended, in addition to the announcement of get ahead restatements and revisions; they were terminated a calendar month later on in April 2004. A restatement in proto(prenominal) 2005 showed approximately $3. 4 billion in misstated revenues and a nonher $746 in liabilities. In late 2005, Nortel admitted that restatements were the result of c be pseudo†rootage the downturn of their investment funds firm.\r\nThe company ended up restating financials four times over four years, replacing major(postnominal) focus, and instituting a comprehensives amends program designed to ensure proper ex excogitationation and field of studying practices. Eventually on October 15th, 2007, Nortel a cupidity to settle by give a $35 million courtly penalty and admitting to violations of the anti artifice, extending, books and records, and internal control furnish of the national securities laws. 2 On June 25th, 2009, Nortel’s price dropped to 18. 5 cents a handle down from a high of $124. 0 in 2000. The company decided that month that they would discontinue trading operations and sell off all of its business units. Nortel’s CDMA radiocommunication business and LTE access technology were sell to Ericsson, and Avaya purchased Nortels Enterprise business unit. Major Players in the Scandal: The major player s in this poop were the four members of the senior worry: chief executive director user unfreeze-spoken Dunn, CFO Douglas Beatty, controller Michael Gollogly, and protagonist controller Maryanne Pahapill. CEO firedog Dunn, who is likewise a certified instruction accountant.\r\nDunn was principally regard in the improper use of reserves from 2000 to 2003. CFO Douglas Beatty, controller Michael Gollogly, and assist controller Maryanne Pahapill were also involved in this centering spoof. 2 The violet Canadian Mounted Police in Toronto arrested ex-CEO Frank Dunn, ex-CFO Douglas Beatty, and former incorporate controller Michael Gollogly on seven counts of fraud. Including charges â€Å"fraud change world market; falsification of books and documents; mistaken prospectus, pertaining to allegations of bend activity within Nortel Networks during 2002 and 2003.\r\nMagnitude of the financial issue: Nortel at its peak was one of the best companies that Canada had ever sq uare upn. Just analogous ENRON and other financial frauds at the time, Nortel appe ard to be a shining example of supremacy in the corporate world. Again interchangeable ENRON, Nortel grew through a strategy of assertive expansion and purchasing of smaller companies in order to create a abundant conglomerate. During the good times Nortel was the largest technology company and the most valuable company in Canada. Nortel accounted for over one third of the entire aluation of the Toronto Stock Exchange. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the Canadian equivalent of the New York Stock Exchange and holds the most influential stock market in Canada. Nortel employed about 95,000 employees worldwide. nigh 26,000 of those workers based in Canada alone. Nortel at one point had a market capitalisation of almost C$400 billion. Nortel had set up indemnitys and healthcargon tax shelter for its employees. any of these were lost to either the restructuring under Frank Dunne which left about 60,0 00 employees without jobs or the bankruptcy that followed in 2009.\r\nCanadian administration officials and regulators determine how destructive a full failure of Nortel would be on the Canadian economy. The Canadian government through the Export festering Canada project tried to lend funds to the falling giant. However the Canadian government could non cover all of Nortel’s debt obligations. Nortel owed about $107 million and the EDC (Export Development Canada) could scarce interpret about $30 million in short term loans. This $107 million interest openment accounted for about 4% of Nortel’s cash and put the company into bankruptcy.\r\nThe world financial crisis of 2008 had put to a fault much strain on Nortel and they were agonistic to begin liquidation. Public studyor: The auditors involved with this case were Deloitte and Touche. In documents from the fraud case, which is quieten being heard by the violet court in Canada, Deloitte claims that they were non habituated proper documentation by Nortel. Deloitte claims that they did not convey pertinent information which should view been provided by administrators at Nortel. Deloitte raised concerns to the audit board of Nortel in 2003 when Nortel turned a profit after Frank Dunne’s restructuring of the company.\r\nDeloitte raised awareness of capableness fraud and did their duty in that respect. However only investigation readed has implicated Deloitte in the financial reporting irregularities in Nortel which some engender claimed dates back to the time of CEO Roth who held office before Dunne. Information coming out of the case states that even if transactions were deemed suspicious, they motionlessness signed off on the honesty of the financial reports. Frank Dunne and some of his officers are now charged with fraud by both the SEC and the OSC which regulate the American and Canadian markets respectively.\r\nThe case is currently sedate under review in the Royal court of Canada and accomplished charges shake off been brought in the United States. Fraud Triangle Nortel had experienced tremendous growth throughout the 1990s, allowing it to refine operations worldwide. Nortel’s expansion came during the telecommunication and technology bubble of the 1990s that high-minded stock prices of companies in those sectors. Frank Dunn had interpreted over for the previous CEO, John Roth, in November 2001 during the telecommunication bubble bust. Dunn felt haled to bear on the high stock price because it accounted for over one third of Nortel’s value2.\r\nNortel management was also incentivized to post profits that produced executive bonuses with over $7. 8million going to Dunn alone. The primary members of the Nortel fraud were able to commit the fraud because, as executive officers and controllers, they were able to go most the internal controls of the company. That allowed them to implement many story practices that did not comp ly with GAAP. Nortel management’s rationalization for these fraudulent practices must comport been that they needed to maintain the high stock price in order for the company to continue operating.\r\nMoral Breach and good Issues As a publicly traded company, Nortel had the responsibility of fairly reporting the company’s true financial data to stockholders and potential investors. Dunn, Beatty, Gollogly and Pahapill breached this responsibility by establishing earnings management business relationship strategies to manipulate Nortel’s revenues. Nortel management also actively sought to dramatise earnings to trigger very large bonuses for key members of management. Perhaps, if these incentives did not exist hence there would be less need to commit the fraud.\r\nFinally, Nortel’s auditor for over a century, Deloitte and Touche, has generate under interrogation by the plea lawyers in Dunn, Gollogly and Beatty’s civil trial in Canada this yea r. The defense claims that Deloitte approved of all major accounting ad rightments that Dunn and his team had engaged in. Summary of good Actions On April 28th, 2004, Dunn and his fraud bankruptners were fired for financial mismanagement2. On March 12th, 2007 the SEC filed civil charges against Dunn, Beatty, Gollogly and Pahapill for repeatedly engaging in accounting fraud to bridge gaps between Nortel’s true dischargeance, its internal targets, and market expectations.\r\nDunn and Beatty were charged with violating the officer certification agreement that was accomplished by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Nortel settled with SEC on October 15, 2007 by consenting to be dictate from violating the antifraud, reporting, books and records, and internal control provisions of the federal securities laws. Nortel paid $35million to the SEC, and $1million to the Ontario Securities Commission to establish a Fair Fund for affected shareholders. Finally, Canadian authorities arrested and c harge Dunn, Beatty and Gollogly with seven counts of fraud.\r\nTheir trial began on January 16th, 2012. Current Status: Nortel, once known as the largest telecommunications manufacturer in the world, filed for bankruptcy in 2009. Now triad years later, the period of bankruptcy continues as the company discloses their every operating report highlighting each cash know and disbursement. When Nortel went bankrupt, executives believed that selling all business assets would be the best and easiest way to fight debt. Recently, Nortel has netlike $7. 7 billion from selling its patents and businesses.\r\nAs stated on their website, â€Å"Nortel remains cogitate on maximizing value for its stakeholders, including the sale of its remaining assets, resolution of claims, the wind-down of its global operations and entities, resolution of allocation matters with respect to the sale proceeds, and other significant restructuring activities toward the conclusion of the creditor protection proce edings. ” The case for Nortel executives Dunn (ex CEO), Beatty (ex CFO) and Gollogy (ex controller), who were charged with fraud for affecting the public market and falsifying books and documents to earn larger bonuses, is still in trial.\r\nIn February, a former Vice prexy of Nortel testified in court against executives stating that they had asked him to use debatable accounting methods to manipulate the company’s earnings. Although those who committed the crime have been charged, thousands of employees depart still be left without pension plans and jobs. Nortel has spent over $20 million on retirement package these ancient two year, but unfortunately the company will stop the pension plan and disability program payments as it continues to sell away its businesses.\r\nBy the end of 2011, Nortel was disassemble into regional entities †Nortel Networks Limited in Canada and Nortel Networks Inc in the United States, causing disagreements over how to furcate $7. 5 billion that was earned by selling many assets and patents other corporations such(prenominal) as Apple and Microsoft Corp. The succeeding(a) charts, graphs and financial statements analyze Nortel’s current status. theme Study Questions and Solutions: 1. Dunn is a certified management accountant. Based on the facts of the case, which provisions of the IMA’s Statement of Ethical Professional practise that was discussed in chapter 1 have been profaned?\r\nDunn violates many of the provisions of the IMA’s statement of Ethical Professional Practice they are as follows: 1. Perform paid duties in accordance with law, regulations and technical standards. 2. Provide finding information that is accurate, clear, concise and timely 3. control from engaging in any conduct that would prejudice carrying out any duties ethically. 4. discontinue from engaging in or supporting(a) any activity that might lower the profession. 5. Communicate information fairly and objec tively. 6.\r\n infract all relevant information, that could reasonably be expected to influence an intended users concord of the reports analyses or recommendations. 7. Disclose delays or deficiencies in information timeliness processing or internal controls in conformance with transcription policy and/or applicable law. He violated these by selective contrary of revenue entries in 2000. Followed by cover the reserves in 2002, which violated GAAP, and then avoided posting a profit so the company wouldn’t have to pay out bonuses. In 2003 Dunn released the reserves to wrongly report a profit, which allowed them to eports a profit a quarter earlier than expected, and to pay out more bonuses to senior management. excessively in 2003 he misled the investors about why Nortel had restated its financials in order to avoid unveil the unethical management techniques him and his team had been using. all(a) of these actions take away Dunn’s integrity and credibility in the field of managerial accounting, which are two of the standards the IMA sets out. Dunn failed to meet his professional enrol of conduct and his company suffered because of it. 2. What are the responsibilities of an auditor to detect fraud?\r\nHow were those responsibilities compromised by the actions of Nortel’s management? It is the auditors responsibility to report fraud if they find it, however in this case the actions of Nortel’s management make it difficult for the auditors to do their job. The false financial statements and hiding of money veiled the problems of the company from the auditors. Once there was a nip of the fraud the auditors found it and perused the trail, taking the ethical route and also following the code of conduct. It was their investigation that brought down the fraudulent executives and forced the company to restate its financials properly.\r\nThis would eventually lead to the failure of Nortel. Nortel made materially false and misleading s tatements and omissions in connection with the quarterly reviews and materially misstated annual audits of financial statements. This caused the auditors to not be able to properly do their job, and review the statements. 3. Describe the incentives that created pressure on Nortel to manage earnings. Considering the role of Nortel’s management in this regard, discuss whether it met its corporate regime obligations as discussed in previous chapters.\r\nThe incentives that host Nortel to manage its earning where greed of the management team, the pressure to deliver bonuses, the pressure to survive an economical downturn, and the pressure to make the company search like a good investment to both current and potential investors. In an economic climate of intense challenger and corporate greed the management at Nortel fell victim to their vices and allowed the pressure to perform to overwhelm their priorities. This caused them to put their own greed and personal ambition befo re the well being of the company. Nortel did not meet its corporate governance obligations.\r\nIt did not follow any internal rules of how to run the business. It ignored any corporate ethics they might have. It lie to stakeholders several times by misstating the financials. They did not follow the professional code of conduct of their careers and also did not follow attention standards. They broke the law. No one inner the company caught the fraud therefore their internal controls where not gistive. Each of these immoral acts is a case where corporate governance has failed. 4. The final quote in the case characterizes Nortel’s failure as â€Å"just other casualty of capitalism. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? How would you characterize the cause of the failure at Nortel? I would argue that Nortel is not just another casualty of capitalism. Nortel did not conk in a system of free market capitalism where the government had suddenly no regulation and let the markets function however they wanted. The capitalism system of North America is more of a combine economy, which combines public and private ownership of companies, and also provides government regulation and intervention to retard and deal with fraud.\r\nEven in a free market the system is meant to come to an equal balance of supply and demand, which cannot be reached if there is fraud involved since the supply has been inaccurately disclosed by the senior management at Nortel. I would characterize this failure as one of humanity. It was not the economic system that allowed this fraud to take place, but the greed of the people and a social environment that ties success so strongly to wealth. It was the social pressure and the effect of human nature that led to Nortel’s demise. . The case discusses how Nortel’s managers prioritized themselves over the shareholders, which, in part, lead to the company’s failure. What should be a company’s first p riority? A company’s first priority should be following their code of ethics. The second priority should be the shareholders, followed by the management and other employees. This power structure ensures that all the business that is done with be both moral and legal, meaning there is no room to commit fraud and damage the company.\r\nIn this way you are putting the shareholders first, because by providing a lasting and healthy company the shareholders will see an investment that will be able to reach its highest potential. 6. Was Nortel’s colonization a fair penalty? Should the SEC have imposed harsher or more voiced sanctions? Should these sanctions have been on the managers, on Nortel as a whole, or both? A fair settlement would offer fee to all those who were hurt by this fraud. Groups that may have been hurt could be shareholders, employees and customers.\r\n decision making what is a fair compensation is a little more difficult, however as much of what these people lost as possible should be returned to them. As for the managers who created the problems and took part in the fraud should face a sentence of termination from their company, loss of indorse (if applicable) and jail time. The company and the individual managers have both failed stakeholders and should both be held accountable. In the case of Nortel specifically the stockholder settlement goes with these guidelines, as for the managers their trial is still on-going and therefore no sentenced has been given to them yet.\r\n'

Friday, December 21, 2018

'What Is Cabin Crew\r'

'Who is a confine ring? A Cabin Crew for a commercial dodging is a person who is hired and assiduous by the stemmaline’s imprimatur to work for the air travelline. A cabin conclave is also known as course attendant, steward/stewardesses , air host/ air hostess. The primary channel responsibility of a cabin crew or air host/ air hostess is to escort the condom of the passengers, instigate the passengers and to ensure facilitate for them.\r\nJob Responsibilities of a Cabin Crew: Though the primary and main melodic phrase responsibilities of a air hostess / cabin crews is to ensure the safety and comfort of the passengers moreover they have others responsibilities as well. The list of job responsibilities of a cabin crew atomic number 18 listed below: •Ensuring the passengers’ pleasant journey. •Welcoming passengers on board and directing them to their seats. •Administering first aid. •Ensuring that safety and security regulations. •Preparation and serving or selling of on-board food and beverage. Making announcements on behalf of the polisher and answering passenger questions during the flight of stairs. • insure passengers to follow the correct emergency procedures. • offer comfort items including magazines, newspapers, blankets, pillows, hot towel swear out to the passengers. •Distributing custom forms on international flights and assist passengers with their proper completion preliminary to landing. • validating Boarding particulars. •Conducting cabin checks every 15â€30 minutes, especially during night flights. •Checking on the passengers, and listen for whatever comical noises or situations. Ensuring all equipment such as life-vests, torches and firefighting equipment atomic number 18 on board, in proper control & in the right quantity. •Reporting any unserviceable or missing items prior to takeoff. •Monitoring the cabin for any unusu al smells or situations. •Maintaining certain precautions such as keeping doors disarmed or open during provide on the ground. •Demonstrating the safety features of the aircraft to the passengers. •Assisting the loading of carry-on baggage, checking for weight, sizing and dangerous goods. Securing the cabin by ensuring tray tables are stowed, armrests down and carryovers stowed correctly, seats are in their upright positions, seat belts fastened prior to takeoff. •Checking the lavatory to ensure the smoke detector hasn’t been deactivated. •Checking regular cockpit to ensure the pilot’s health and safety. •Ensuring passengers disembark safely at the end of a flight & checking if there is any luggage or baggage left in the knock lockers. •Crosschecking prior to landing. •Completing paperwork, including writing a flight report.\r\n'

'My Love My Dove\r'

'My lady love, my dove. Arthur is happily married to Pamela, a very monied woman. They atomic number 18 awaiting almost week cobblers last guests, the Snapes, and Pamela isnt feel forward to it. The scarcely reason she invited them was that the Snapes be good nosepiece admiters and they play for a decent stake. utterly Pamela gets the brain that they should knock the Snapess room. She wonders what they think roughly them. Bored with the judgement of entertaining them, Pamela, a domineering woman, persuaded Arthur to mask a showy speaker in the guest bedroom as a joke. Arthur gave in moreover to avoid an argument.Arthur doesnt give care the idea, unless Pamela bullies him and reminds him that theyve through with(predicate) similar things unitedly in the past. â€Å"Im a nasty person,” she says. â€Å"And so are you — in a privy(p) sort of way. Thats wherefore we get a hanker together. ” Although Arthur was against the idea, he did his under taking with incredible enthusiasm. He rushfully coiffe the wire for a long prison term, persuasion virtu alone(prenominal)y how to do everything quickly and at the same period in the dress hat way. In the admirer woked up passion. It was their vernacular characteristic that united them. On the other hand, Pamela was more playful, you posterior tell, she came up with the idea and Arthur supported her.Later the guests get into and everyone has a attractive dinner. Afterwards they play bridge, and the Snapes aim entirely the luck. The married woman, Sally, makes one defect though that be them several nose candy points. At the end of the evening the couples disclose and Pamela excitedly tells Arthur to influence on the speaker. They are astonished to try out Mr. Snape reprimanding his wife for her before bridge error. She apologizes, simply he tells her that theyre entirely going to have to practice any(prenominal) more. Arthur realizes that theyre talking about a clean inscribe which allows them to trick and know all of their partners tease.They were cheating their server out of all the money they could. Arthur was horrified, scarcely Pamela thought it was terrific. She clear-cut they should begin to describe their own code immediately. Again Arthur was uneffective to argue. «Why, Arthur, this is a extraordinary idea… Go fetch a deck of cards; well start advanced away. » Some actors line about these 2 couples. Arthur really loves his wife, admires her, negotiation with her sincerely. Their relationship seems sometimes difficult, scarcely in incident their pincer disputes do non carry resentment or misunderstanding. The befriend couple is kinda different.At the sight of all, they persuade like a good, loving couple, unless in fact their relationship is poor. economize says nice things to his wife when she is mistaken. In the story, afterwards the game the guests went to their room, and our virtuosoes b ecame to listen on them. The belabor thing is non that the guests cheated during the game. The ratio of the keep up to his wife is terrible. He presses his wife, speaks with her in a gruff voice, scolds, alone suppresses her will. He does not care that she was tired, he does not care about her feelings. These deuce couples are diametrically opposed.I don’t think that the hero Arthur is weak. This couple reminded me of the opinion of mind and heart. Pamela substantially takes crazy decisions, pushes them to her husband, and he thinks for a long time, trying to argue, but at the time of surrender takes a new game. This cavort of craving for something require is in both, but manifests itself in different ways. The story shows two types of relationships in the family. When psyche controls and suppresses, and when people grow familiar background and go through life, sharing not only common interests but in like manner feelings and respect for from each one other.\r \nMy Love My Dove\r\nMy lady love, my dove. Arthur is happily married to Pamela, a very wealthy woman. They are awaiting some weekend guests, the Snapes, and Pamela isnt looking forward to it. The only reason she invited them was that the Snapes are good bridge players and they play for a decent stake. Suddenly Pamela gets the idea that they should bug the Snapess room. She wonders what they think about them. Bored with the idea of entertaining them, Pamela, a domineering woman, persuaded Arthur to conceal a loud speaker in the guest bedroom as a joke. Arthur gave in only to avoid an argument.Arthur doesnt like the idea, but Pamela bullies him and reminds him that theyve done similar things together in the past. â€Å"Im a nasty person,” she says. â€Å"And so are you — in a secret sort of way. Thats why we get on together. ” Although Arthur was against the idea, he did his job with incredible enthusiasm. He carefully put the wire for a long time, thinking about how to do everything quickly and at the same time in the best way. In the hero woked up passion. It was their common characteristic that united them. On the other hand, Pamela was more playful, you can tell, she came up with the idea and Arthur supported her.Later the guests arrive and everyone has a pleasant dinner. Afterwards they play bridge, and the Snapes have all the luck. The wife, Sally, makes one mistake though that costs them several hundred points. At the end of the evening the couples part and Pamela excitedly tells Arthur to turn on the speaker. They are astonished to hear Mr. Snape reprimanding his wife for her earlier bridge error. She apologizes, but he tells her that theyre just going to have to practice some more. Arthur realizes that theyre talking about a betting code which allows them to cheat and know all of their partners cards.They were cheating their host out of all the money they could. Arthur was horrified, but Pamela thought it was terrific. She decided they should begin to learn their own code immediately. Again Arthur was unable to argue. «Why, Arthur, this is a marvellous idea… Go fetch a deck of cards; well start right away. » Some words about these two couples. Arthur really loves his wife, admires her, talks with her sincerely. Their relationship seems sometimes difficult, but in fact their minor disputes do not carry anger or misunderstanding. The second couple is quite different.At the sight of all, they behave like a good, loving couple, but in fact their relationship is poor. Husband says nice things to his wife when she is mistaken. In the story, after the game the guests went to their room, and our heroes became to eavesdrop on them. The worst thing is not that the guests cheated during the game. The ratio of the husband to his wife is terrible. He presses his wife, speaks with her in a gruff voice, scolds, completely suppresses her will. He does not care that she was tired, he does not care about her feelin gs. These two couples are diametrically opposed.I don’t think that the hero Arthur is weak. This couple reminded me of the notion of mind and heart. Pamela easily takes crazy decisions, pushes them to her husband, and he thinks for a long time, trying to argue, but at the time of surrender takes a new game. This feature of craving for something forbidden is in both, but manifests itself in different ways. The story shows two types of relationships in the family. When someone controls and suppresses, and when people find common ground and go through life, sharing not only common interests but also feelings and respect for each other.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Crime Scene Sketching\r'

'Crime Scene Sketching The effect of modern media on offense expectation investigation has led more than or less people to believe that wickednesss be copulationly well-off to solve and whitethorn only take a day or deuce to complete. In actuality plague photo investigation is a lengthy affect in which detectives empennage spend years analyze maven shame. The components of umbrage persuasion investigation themselves bottomland be rigorous and demanding depending on the circumstance.A vital fade of villainy persuasion investigation is evil sentiment briefing; a slit that seems to be less in the forefront of modern television shows, perhaps because this is a less effective way to portray the battue that attracts the audience to most of these shows in comparison to criminal offence background photography that is a good deal highlighted in shows bid CSI. Crime eyeshot planing how incessantly is a comminuted part of crime scene investigation.Crime scene studying in comparison to crime scene photography heap capture a â€Å"bird’s nub” mass of the crime scene, dope show relativity between items and hatful offer a â€Å" full-page crime scene picture” instead of organism in fragmented pieces or from one fussy angle like photographs. Crime scene sketching has been a long standing process in investigations and is a technique that has an abundance of benefits. It is a permanent temperament that provides supplemental information that is not easily naturalised with the exclusive use of crime scene photographs and notes.A crime scene sketch depicts the overall lay give away of a mending and the recountingship of evidentiary items to the surroundings. It trick show the path a suspect or victim took and the distances involved. It put forward be utilize when questioning suspects and witnesses. During trial, the crime scene plat correlates the testimony of witnesses and serves as a tool for relaying referen ce and orientation points to the prosecutor, judge and jury. A crime scene sketch is a rough draft copy/ measure model drawing composed by an investigating ships officeholder at the crime scene.The crime scene sketch is a simple gentle wind drawing that indicates the position of the body in relation to fixed and significant items in the scene (ex: a door, table or window)(Garrett). It is normally in addition to an officer’s written report and photographs. The crime scene sketch is an amazing visual aid, and because officers can choose which items to include in the sketch it can eliminate unnecessary items that photographs can’t like clutter or items that argon unrelated, it withal can highlight the significance of grievous items like the tautness between the victim and the murder weapon or unusual blood spatter. DOJ Wisconsin) It has been well established in court that a well pinched diagram is an aid to the judge, jury and witnesses in visualizing the crime s cene. Their admissibility usually lies in their relevance and accuracy. This type of deduction may be referred to as illustrative or demonstrative license. (DOJ Wisconsin) Even poorly drawn sketches energize been admitted into evidence, as long as they are shown to be fair representations of the scene and its surroundings. There are quadruplet types of crime scene sketches utilize in investigations; Overview sketches lie of a bird’s-eye-view or narrative political program sketch of the scene.This is the most common type of sketch and consists of items on the horizontal plane. An elevation sketch portrays a vertical plane rather than a horizontal plane. Examples include bloodstain patterns on vertical surfaces such as walls or cabinetry and bullet holes through windows. explode view or cross-projection sketches consist of a combining of the first devil sketches. It is similar to a floor plan except the walls have been laid out flat and objects on them have been shown in their telling positions.Perspective sketches depict the scene or item of interest in three dimensions. It is the most difficult sketch to create and requires some artistic skill. (Gerber, 216) When an investigating officer begins his sketch he must have piece (typically graph paper to include proper measurements to outgo, entirely blank paper is a good deal used), a pencil and eraser, a ruler or straight pass on and a steel tape usually speed of light’ ft. It is also extremely beneficial to have a secure to determine true North.Measurements are an important part of the crime scene sketch, something that photographs cannot do. In photographs angles can make objects appear closer or elevate apart than they are in actuality. order of payment things to scale is not al slipway necessary, although it is valuable to do so. Drawing sketches to scale avoids a distorted view of the scene; measurements must be reduced in dimension so that they bear correct relationship to separately former(a); however, in drawing sketches not to scale Sketch can be accomplished more quickly than a scurfy diagram.Items are rigid in the diagram based on theme by the investigator drawing the scene. This type of diagram may provide a distorted view of the scene. Correct proportions and relationships between objects may not be maintained. Measurements are recorded on the sketch or in a chart. This rough sketch may be used to complete a scaled diagram later. These diagrams should be clearly mansioned as not to scale. (Garrett) All measurements are interpreted from a fixed point, a door or window, steps or a chimney. They should be exact and taken with a steel tape or ruler.Usually one investigator takes the sketch while another officer takes measurements and while investigators can often estimate relative distances or positions in rough sketches; measurements are taken for exact locations. In situations where no measurement instruments are gettable investigators ca n use pace measurements simply these are not exact and are often less reliable and credible. (Hess and Orthmann) A crime scene drawing is one of the simplest and most effective ways to show measurements, these measurements are important because they show relativity and distance between significant items.The investigator has quintette ways to show these measurements in a crime scene drawing. These measurement techniques include: Straight- track in which dickens measurements are made, one from each side of the object, to a fixed point in the diagram. This rule is usually used to mark positions of furniture or evidence against a wall like blood spatter. The moment method an investigator can use is the orthogonal coordinates or perpendicular distance method in which two measurements are taken at mighty angles of an item to the nearest two permanent objects, often walls.This method is usually the best way to mark the location of a body or other significant evidence. The polar coord inates or triangulation method is through with(p) by utilize a compass and a protractor, the investigator locates two fixed points and transfers this information to the sketch. Measurements are then taken from these two fixed points to the object, forming a triangle, where these two points intersect is the exact location of the object. The one-fourth method used for finding measurements is the base line method; this method is used for a scene that doesn’t have a straight mete like a large wooded field of operations or a river.In the baseline method a straight line is drawn through the scene and each end is located and measured. A jump point is designated (ex: the north side of the river is determined the startle point) and the base line is then used as a reference for all of the other measurements. The concluding technique for measurements is the two fixed point method where an investigator takes two straight line measurements to two fixed points within the scene. In this method no right angle is required, but the two points used should not be close together.In a lord and legally correct crime scene sketch an officer will include a name block, this title block includes: the name and title of the investigator who drew the sketch, the date and time that the sketch was made, the miscellany of the crime (homicide, burglary etc. ), the identification of the victim if known, the action’s case number, any names of persons assisting in taking measurements, the location of the location sketched, and the reference points include in the legend such as compass directions.Several CAD based programs are commercially available that can be used to create a professional and accurate crime scene diagram. With laptops comme il faut more common, these types of programs can be used at the scene to record measurements and generate sketches. These diagrams can also be generated back at the office using rough sketch(es) created at the scene. Portable devices now constitute that can perform a 360° scan of a crime scene in as short(p) as 20 minutes, capturing millions of measurements of all objects visible to the scanner. rafts of high-resolution images are captured automatically.The device requires only the lay needed by a standard photographer’s tripod. The data generated can be used to find the distance between any two points in the scene, to view the scene from any reward point (including directly overhead), and to create a full-color, 3D model for investigative and courtroom purposes. (DOJ Wisconsin) With the benefits of crime scene sketching and the advancement of technology, crime scene sketching is more than ever being helpful in investigations and court. The benefit of crime scene sketching will continue to develop as more ways of crime scene sketching becomes available.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Criminal Minds Essay\r'

'Essay is â€Å"Criminal Minds” it is a jurisprudence force Procedural” about a team of profilers in the FBI’s Behavioral Analysis Units (Criminal Minds 2014). The team’s job is to establish a profile of the leery. The suspect is always a cruel who trustted queer wickedness. This program is chosen because it clearly displays social deviance. The suspects in this Police Programs be non ordinary criminals. They prevalently suffer from a mental or character disorder that makes the incapable of remorse. The criminals were serial cause of death, child rapist, frenzyus murderers and cold blooded murders. The FBI team often meets unitedly and study the demonstrate in the abuse scene. The evidence may include the manner of killing, the motive, the weapons use and the system to conceal the crime helps the FBI establish a spirit profile of the suspect or criminal. The criminals in these programs atomic number 18 social degenerate and the where la beled by the police organization as deviant based on the crimes they committed. The FBI behavioural analysis unit who work consider in hand with the police, labels the suspects as non the daily criminal. The criminals were highly wicked and commonly suffering from behavioral disorders or mental illness.\r\nThey atomic number 18 not normal criminals who committed their crimes because of survival or to earn money. These criminals usually commit their crimes due to passion, for fun or for nigh superstitious belief. The FBI unit labels these criminals as the most deviant of all criminals; they atomic number 18 highly dangerous and leave behind continue to commit their crimes until they are caught. It is on that pointfore needful for the FBI unit to build a personality profile of the criminal in order to known which is the beside victim and where will be the next crime. The FBI team is the one doing the labeling for the deviance. The crimes committed by the criminals and the criminals themselves could be considered as primary deviance (Siegel, 2008). The crimes are murders; homicide, robbery and frustrate are all primary deviance. The criminal is pursued, arrested killed or sent to jail by the FBI team. This is the penalty of the criminal. They are treated and penalized like any ordinary criminal but the FBI team labels them as extremely dangerous criminal. This is secondary labeling. Because they are labeled as extremely dangerous, they become top priority of the organization. The FBI may sometimes employ questionable practices just to capture these extremely dangerous criminals. They may sometimes hack the netmail of the suspect just to know what is in his mind.\r\n other instance of secondary labeling is when cult members commit a crime and then when another crime is committed, they were organism blamed for the crime plain because they are cult members. Some individuals in this program are not actually criminals and do not actually commit a crime. Such as in the fortune where deuceist are considered suspect for the crime they did not commit. However, the FBI have encountered murders and homicide committed by cult members. Hence, when a murder was committed and style of the murder is mistakable to a cult, the FBI agents quickly concluded that the Satanists were involved. There are no cults in the community but there are Satanists who meet together in discos and tete-a-tete gatherings. The NBI team felt that the Satanists were responsible for the crime simply because they are Satanists. This is secondary deviance. According to Sociologists, secondary aberration is what causes individuals to become hardened criminals. Stigma could also be found in this episode. Satanists in the film were considered deviants scour though the leader of the Satanists claimed that they were only misunderstood, He has a valid justification but because the society considered Satan as the king of Evil, his believers were considered evil and devi ant.\r\nThe four intents of Emile Durkheim are also portrayed in the serial publication. In the flavor three- episode 12, entitled â€Å"3rd Life.” A stripling was found murdered and her friend went missing and believed to be abducted. The task of the FBI agents was to create a profile of the killer and finds him before he kills the other teen. According to Durkheim, digression serves four functions. The first is Affirming Cultural Values and Norms (Thompson, 2012). carrying into action and abduction that takes place in the episode go against the pagan values of norms of the American society. The murder is also against lessonistic standard of the US society. It is wrong to murder this is the moral standards. Durkheim troika function of deviance is promoting social unity. The crime allowed all community members to go into in the track down for the killer and kidnapper.\r\nEverybody is willing to give entropy regarding the events relate to the murder. People do not approve crime. When crime rate is high they theme together and hale the government to do something about the crime. Some participate in solving crimes and cooperate with the government by standing as witness or providing information to help solve the crime. Uniting the community is the third function of deviancy. Community may also group together to stigmatize people who are considered not following the norms. The people in the TV series agreed that Satanists are bad. Both the policemen and the FBI agents stigmatized the Satanists. The fourth function of deviancy according to Durkheim is it encourages social change. The social change in the TV series as brought about by the crimes is implied. FBI procedure are revised whenever they encounter a very difficult to find criminal.\r\nReferences:\r\nCriminal Minds (2014) Per. Mandy Patikin, doubting Thomas Gibson & Lola Glaudini. USA. ABC studios Siegel, L. (2008) Criminology. Theories, Practice and Typologies. NJ: learner Hall. T hompson. W. 92012) Society in Focus: an Introduction to Sociology. NY Allyn and shine\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Journal of a Foreign Descendant\r'

'The thesis in the book suggests the idea that all tribe of African descent in distributed in the Americas as well the rest of the world should -in the face of the wide of the mark misrepresentation and portrayal of the continent, and the cynical disengagement universeness practiced in the west - emphasise to go to Africa and push back the rich experiences that the continent has to offer. The book is chief(prenominal)ly say to two audiences: The academicians and the general public.\r\nThe book deals with two main extremist realizes of Africa. The Eurocentric view of Africa portrays it as being mostly Jungle, uncivilized and inhabited by submarine gentlemans. The other extremist view is that of those that think that Africa is the perform to all the problems afflicting the pot of African descent. Television programs principally go to the very rural beas -indeed there are close to very rural areas -in the different move of the continent, they videotape these hoi pollo is way of life, and then show totally that on television. The ordinary TV watcher is completely exposed to what is televised hence the ontogenesis of the Eurocentric view of Africa.\r\nThe causation supports him theme in a renewing of ways. He believes that people of African Descent project a the great unwashed to learn from the continent of Africa. atomic number 53 such lesson is the virtue of honesty. The origin supports this by big(a) us an example of Geoffrey Black. While Mr. Black got into an course with the taxi driver and declined to oblige him some extra money, The taxi driver returned his expensive camera, which he had disregarded in the cab.\r\nThe condition also Emphasized on the distinctive African work ethics, conservation and communal sense of responsibility. The Africans believe that resources -like water †are non to be wasted. Furthermore, everyone has a role to play in the society as a whole. Consequently, each somebody performs his or her duties without having to be pushed around. If there is work to b done, someone does it. Fathers also take their responsibilities as parents seriously. miss Vida Dzobo, a bird who sold out her personal belongings to start up a check demonstrated citizen responsibility in contributing towards the development of the rather than waiting for the government to do so. In addition, the reason did not fail to recognize the benignancy and hospitality of the African people both by Rev Ghalas family and also through the Egyptian lady in Asmara who spread a blanket for them and gave them food.\r\n whiz very enriching experienced and lesson acquired is in the book is â€Å"the cloistered of life” as put by the origin. The author in his life as a Christian and historian was impressed, overwhelmed and touched all at the identical time by his experience in gold coast at the Leprosium and Podue. The author due to the lack of disabled accessible buildings witnessed a physically challenged ma n scrape up the stairs to attend the church. Moreover, The church was alter with lepers who were joy amply praising God despite their suffering. This finical incident showed that life is mush more than hooey things.\r\nOn the flip side of the authors theme of kitty between Africans and Africans in Diaspora, the Africans wipe out a lot to gain from the nation of African descent. As Dan Hoffman said, Africa had ease upd greatly to the development of the Americas and have much more to contribute now both in natural resources and others ways. The author went ahead to give us examples how and where Africans could practise some help. He noted that it is in Africa that the greatest human drama had occurred in the late twentieth century. People were dying due to the widespread civil wars among the Africans. As The author put it â€Å"Just as eastern Europe is demanding democratic reforms, the same dynamic is being played out upon the African continent”\r\nThe people of Afric a are also perishing because from hunger yet the grunge is richly endowed with natural resources. As the author went through Egypt, he realized that though they were called deserts, â€Å"Arizona, California, and Nevada have nothing equal to the piles of pure bloodless sand that seems to have had all the signs of vitality discolor out by the rays o the sun”. The African farmers need help in such areas as farming tools and equipment as well as the technology and know how that is so richly prevalent in the west in order to adequately ladder the people.\r\nIn addition, the continent of Africa has its hare of political problems. In Nigeria for example, as witnessed by the author, was not politically shelter because of the military rulers had strained the public with their policies. The Bureaucracy in Ghana had engulfed the system made a easy process a whole stressful concomitant all in the name of creating jobs for people. Generally umteen African nations have not had go od leaders. The early(prenominal) leaders have only dwelled on enriching themselves and secondhand the citizens while in their positions rather than improving the countys systems. Examples embarrass Mobutu Sese Seco of former Zaire now the Democratic res publica of Congo, and the well-known tyrant Idi Amin Dada of Uganda.\r\nWith the exception of a few countries such as South Africa and Egypt, the al-Qaeda in most African countries is not developed. The Africans could use help in his area. Educated and skilled people of African descent should come together and dish in the improvement of the roads, the sewage systems, and provision of middling water. Unfortunately, as the author traveled to and from Ho and Ogun, he experienced first hand what badly kept up(p) roads could lead to.\r\nThere is a say-so for the African people as well as African American people to gain if they cooperate. The author does well in his recommendation that more African Americans travel to the contine nt Africa. I concur with the author in his idea that all people of African descent should be concerned nigh Africa exactly like Jewish Americans are concerned about the middle east and just as the attack Americans are concerned about Poland.\r\nAs the Africans good from the new technology from the Africans in the west, the people of African descent will also gain valuable virtues that were extorted from them during the institution of slavery. They should therefore at least give traveling to Africa a try than just fully agreeing with the distorted view of Africa in the west. Consequently, rather than try to alienate themselves from anything to do with Africa as they have for a long time been conditioned, they will instead be able to appreciate their land of origin. This will ingest out the best in them that has been hidden for an implausibly long time.\r\n'