Sunday, March 31, 2019

Job Satisfaction Among Ghanaian Mental Health Nurses

Job Satisfaction Among gold coastian kind Health Nurses1.1 solid ground StudyThe main neutral of this inquiry is to evaluate the attitudes of gold coastian genial salubriousness nurses and the take aim of job delight in the three authorities psychiatrical hospitals in Ghana. It has been identified that most throng who suffer from psychical distemper ar always vulnerable and at proud guess of suffering from disfigurementtisation and secernment. Mental wellness tradingals such as nurses argon always in contact with patients and their attitudes towards these patients can play a major(ip) factor in their recovery. This view of study has been neglected peculiarly in maturement countries like Ghana. This study is to try as much as possible to find pop how the nurses attitudes affect their patients and the role job propitiation plays.Over the years genial health has mixed bagd in many faces including the boldness of psychological institutions, which has in any case gone by means of virtually(a)(prenominal) changes in varied countries thitherby drastically reducing the number of psychiatric admissions in superior full general hospitals. However, it is chief(prenominal) for one to know if these changes reflect the attitudes of nation towards psychical unwellness especially amiable health nurses. The perception of cordial ailment plays a major role in the psychiatric medical profession which several disputes on what should be classified as pathological and which should be seen as normal. These disputes pass several consequences on the diagnosis, research, and policies concerning psychiatry and may in addition have close go of bias on the selection of manipulations and prognosis overdue to the widespread of unauthentic ascriptions of the causes of the macabreness (Wakefield, 2007).According to World Health disposal (WHO), psychogenic health is a state of well- creation in which the psyche realises his or her know ledge abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can relieve oneself productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her alliance (WHO 2001). There argon several definitions by researchers on affable health, which is a funda moral panorama of well-being and quality of life and also a basic element of social structure, productivity, peace and stability in the environs (WHO, 2005).This definition by WHO stresses on the commanding scopes of kind health and Shives (2008) also states that noetic health is a positive state in which to each one and everybody is responsible, self-directive and displays self-aw arness where ones behaviour is generally accepted at heart a group. However Bryne (2000) utter that multiple factors influence the level of psychic health of person at any point in time and one of the major hindrances to the realisation of positive health and well being leads to chump.Mental illness is a mental response to stress tha t interferes with or inhibits a persons ability to easily meet human needs and functions within a culture (NSW, Department of Health, 2007). Moreover, the American Psychiatric Association also defines mental illness as a clinically significant behaviour and psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual associated with present distress, disability or loss of freedom (Bryne, 2000). Mental illness is a major indorser to the burden of disease internationally, which has a major influence on the disability, co-morbidity, and deathrate being experienced globally (CAMIMH 2007, Lauber Sartorius 2007).World Health scheme (WHO) estimates that about 450one thousand thousand sight go out suffer from whatever systema skeletale of mental disorder with 13% of the global disease burden being do of schizophrenia, depression, epilepsy, dementia, alcohol dependence, neurological and substance- yell disorders which exceeds both(prenominal) cardiovascular disease and cancer (Nat ional launch of Health) moreover people with mental illness atomic number 18 more credibly to be at bump of other health conditions as well. It is estimated that at least one member in every four families has a mental disorder and the primary anxietygivers of those affected argon the family members and this brings some track of burden to these families, which are more often than not ignored (WHO, 2010). Depression is estimated to be the blurb highest cause of disease burden in middle-income countries and the third highest in low-income countries by 2030 (WHO, 2010).Moreover, in addition to the health and social cost, which is a problem, there is also the victimisation of human rights violation, steeltisation and discrimination of people with mental illness, which occurs both inside, and outside of psychiatric institutions (WHO, 2010). According some researchers, people with mental illness are at increased risk of drifting into or rest in poverty through increased health ex penditure, reduced stigma and loss of employment and associated earnings (Lund et al, 2911). This puts lots of pressure on people with mental illness and their families especially in low income or developing countries where it is more stressful (NSW, Department of Health, 2007).People diagnosed with mental illness are looked at differently in the world as compared to people who are diagnosed with general health problems. Thus most people have the icon that mental illness patients are strange, frightening, unpredictable, aggressive and lose self-control especially those diagnosed with mental disorders such as schizophrenia which is always associated with invalidating stereotypes of being very aggressive and dangerous (Crisp et al, 2000).Individuals suffering from mental illness for some time now have been at a higher risk of experiencing disfavour and discrimination and most of these prejudice leads to stigmatisation even within health institutions (Linden and Kavanagh, 2011). Pr ejudice can be said to be an emotional response to stereotypes which is tolerated where stereotypes are mostly unfavourable intercessions apply to describe a group or persons based on their merits thus leading to discrimination which is the real behaviour based on prejudice (Lauber et al, 2006). Stigma and prejudice mostly play a basic role in the abuse of human right, which is sadly still being practiced, in some psychiatric institutions and care homes and remain the basis of mental health organisations in some developing countries in the world.Goffman (1963) cited in (Newton-Howes et al, 2008) describes stigma as a quarry of shame or dishonour which can have a negative self esteem and appraisal on a the person thereby becoming a hindrance to recovery, moreover Gray (2002) also tell that, stigma was originally used to mark Greek slaves separating them from men. The stigma of mental illness although more often is related to context than to persons appearance, still remains a pow erful negative attribute in all social relations (Bryne, 2000) and the stigma of mental illness comes from the willpower of a devalued attribute of an individual which is seen by society as a hostile response (Goffman, 1963) cited in (Newton-Howes et al, 2008).World Health boldness (2011) states that stigmatisation of mentally ill patients by the health care providers is the worst form of stigma which affects the quality and rate of recovery. There are several designate from other studies conducted by researchers from other populations which proves that stigma can sometimes been seen to pass around professional groups including mental health nurses.Research by Read and Harre (2001), order that negative attitudes are mostly displayed by mental health nurses towards patients who are disturbed which is mostly present in the patients at acute level of their illness. Health professionals mostly come into contact with people with mental illness regularly and they play an important ro le in shaping attitudes towards mental ill people. Moreover, these health professionals serve as a role mystify on how to approach people with mental illness however Schulze (2007), states that health care professionals have been identified to assume three main positions when it comes to stigmatisation and these embarrass people with mental illness being stigmatised, they being stigmatised by their own association with mental illness and finally playing the role of advocators or de-stigmatises.Stigma affects the progression and healing of people with mental illness according to Perlick et al, (2001) and the loss of income, low self-esteem, loneliness, isolation, delayed seeking of treatment and many more are the firmnesss of stigma and discrimination towards people with mental illness (Sharac et al, 2010 illac et al, 2011). Creating major campaign of the awareness of stigmatising attitudes will support health care workers to be more reflective in the treatment methods towards p eople with mental illness.Sartorius (2007) stated that, people who suffer from mental illness do not frequently pursue treatment due to the fact that healthcare professionals including nurses are considered prime contributors of stigma and discrimination. Some staff who have been condition special training in taking care of people with mental illness do hold negative stigmatising attitudes towards their patients as well which proves that stigma is not only held by individuals with lack of knowledge about mental illness even though educational intervention can serve up reduce its effect in the community or area as a whole (Burti and Mosher, 2003 Pinfold et al, 2003).Mental health services in Ghana are not well recognised as there are lots of inequalities in the provision of resources for this sector as compared to the needs of the general hospitals. Moreover there is still lack of knowledge about mental illness, which is a major contributor of stigma towards people affected with me ntal illness and the healthcare professionals who even take care of them. The population of Ghana has increased super since the grounds independence from 1957 resulting in the growing number of people suffering from mental illness (Ghana Statistical Service, 2003).Mental health service in Ghana is mostly available in primary health care yet the majority of care is provided through specialised psychiatric hospitals of which there are three (3) all located in the southernern part of the country providing 7.08beds per 100,000 populations (Ghana Health Service, 2012). The WHO estimates that out of the 21.6 million Ghanaians, about 650, 000 are believed to be suffering from some form of puckish mental disorder and 2,166, 000 are suffering from moderate to mild form of mental illness (WHO, 2007). Nevertheless, this estimate has not been recognised as a serious health issues and Ghana has not yet developed facilities and cosmos health services including mental health care to keep up with the growing demand of these services and population expansion (Offori-Attah et al. 2010).According to the WHO telamon Survey about 65% of beds in the psychiatric hospitals, are extremely unsatisfactory. The ratio of these beds in Accra the capital city of Ghana is 6.211 thus the total number of beds to the rest of the country indicating a high intensity of resources in the capital (Ofori-Atta et al, 2010). WHO has also reported that most psychiatric hospitals have scarce, undignified, and even harmful practices as well as unhygienic and inhuman living conditions (WHO, 2003). The main focus of psychiatric care straight off in the world is mainly on a number of spot conditions such tolerance and non-discrimination being one of the most important aspect (Hannigan, 1999).Inadequate knowledge about mental illness and negative attitudes mostly towards individuals suffering from mental illness has been noted to be prevalent in the general reality (Nordt, Rossler and Luber, 2006) th us most major research of attitudes towards people with mental illness has been mainly focused on the general public with the opinions of professionals who come into contact with the mentally ill specifically mental health workers recently being highlighted (Angermeyer Dietrich, 2006).Numerous challenges faced by mental health institutions such as lack of resources, increased work load and paucity of staffs put lots of burden on the nurses which negatively affects the quality of care for care given to these patients therefore positive changes in mental health services will go a long way to affect on the role and practice of mental health nurse (Cleary, Walter and Hunt, 2005). suffering job satisfaction plays a major role in the final result of patients care and there have been lack of research in the country concerning this. Job satisfaction of healthcare professionals is a very important aspect that should not be neglected as it can affect the outgrowth of care given to the se patients. Moreover, there are lots of evidence gaps in the country concerning mental health issues and that is the why it is important to conduct this research in order to fill some of these gaps.Job satisfaction is a complex situation, which can be construed, and it involves the absence of pain, oppressiveness and intolerance as well as enjoyment (Sultana and Begum, 2001). Studies on job satisfaction are mostly based on fountains of emotional response of the employees which is linked with some socio-cultural institutions and the personal elements such as pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, nature of work, co-workers, working condition, social perspective and many more (Sultana and Begum, 2001).1.2 RATIONALEResearch fills a very important aspect in the society where discoveries are made as well as confirming or rejecting ideas, controlling or predicting events and developing or refining theories. Thus one develops knowledge as a result of these functions from research. It is unsurprising that human right abuse is mostly related to the short(p) standard of mental health care in low-income countries such as Ghana and the need for ways to restraint is the most obvious selection for healthcare professionals in the absence of neuroleptics (Read, Adiibokah and Nyame, 2009).Studying the attitudes of healthcare professionals especially in the field of mental illness is important. According to Baker et al (2005), attitudes are made of cognitive, affective, and behavioural components, which are activated due to exposure of stimulus or objects. Moreover, the quality of nursing care provided by mental health professionals can be influenced by the attitudes of the nurses towards these patients (Baker, 2008). There have been several campaigns to change negative attitudes and promote positive attitudes towards mental health problems by some countries, which include the United States, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and India (Royal College of psychiatrist (2001) and W orld Psychiatrist Association (2001).Ghana health service (GHS) is the main provider of biomedical care for mental illness in the country however there are just three government psychiatric hospitals in the country providing free healthcare for patients which are all located in the south of the country serving over 21million Ghanaians. All three hospitals have suffered from lack of resources to overcrowding with the end results being poor quality of healthcare.The status of mental health nurses in some communities is low and the advantage of being part of this profession has been dent with some form of stigma such as stigma by association or courtesy stigma (Hinshaw 2007, Thornicroft 2007, Halter 2008) whereby professionals associated with the care of people suffering from mental illness are judged by the equivalent stereotyping stigma. It is therefore very important to explore the theoretical blood in the midst of job satisfaction and professionals stigma towards mental illness .The focus of this study is to holler some of the gaps in mental health concerning stigma and job satisfaction mental health nurses are facing in Ghana. The findings of this study will be a stepping stone to address issues that will come out as a result of the study or re-enforce any positive findings as well. The outcomes of this study may allow a greater collar of how these attitudes are connected and the realistic outcomes can help to the strategize anti-stigma campaigns such as identifying shortfalls of certain groups or identifying logical way1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONTo what point do mental health nurses in Ghana stigmatise people with mental illness?What personal and professional background factors (including job satisfaction) apologise the attitudes that Ghanaian mental health nurses have towards mental illness?What characteristics are associated with nurses attitudes towards mental illness?What is the rate of job satisfaction in mental health nursing and does it affect the c are patients receive?1.4 OBJECTIVESThe main objective of this research is to evaluate the attitudes of psychiatric nurses in Ghana towards the care of mentally ill patients.The specific objectives are as followTo identify the relationship and levels of job satisfaction and stigma towards psychiatric patients among Ghanaian mental health nurses.To determine prevalence of stigma among mental health nurses in Ghana.To explore the rate of job satisfaction in mental health nursing and the impact it has on the attitudes of nursing providing care for patients.To examine the characteristics associated with the attitudes on mental health nurses in Ghana.To disseminate findings to increase awareness and knowledge among healthcare professionals especially mental health nurses.The findings of this study will be used toDevelop programs and strategies to reduce stigma.Help create awareness of stigma in healthcare professionals.Develop policies to reduce stress in the hospitals.Suggest improvement s/amendments to actual mental health policies.1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESISThe following research assumption was formulated for testing the researcher hypothesised that the more psychiatric nurses are satisfied with their job, the more they will exhibit positive attitude towards mental ill patients.The researcher also hypothesise that the more psychiatric nurses are stigmatised about their job, the quality of care they provide will be less and they will exhibit negative attitudes towards their patients

Gbalahi Landfill Effects on the Environment

Gbalahi Landfill set up on the EnvironmentBeyond Technical Description the State of the Gbalahi Landfill and its do on the Environment.CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.0. IntroductionOne critical neighborhood of g everyplacenance that has received huge investment in the exploitation instauration, oddly in Afri give the sack countries in the last decade, is the social sector. However, in Africa, southeastward of the Sahara, investment in the provision of social services is skewed towards headspringspringness c atomic number 18 and education with little going to environmental sanitation. This is in violate of the fact that Afri foot governments identified excess as the second more or less important line after water quality (Senkoro, 2003) and also, the rapid urbanization that the region is experiencing. Africa is said to nominate the highest rates of urbanisation in the world as more hoi polloi live in urban centres (UN-Habitat, 2006). Although this offers economic oppor tunities, it also poses daunting environmental challenges in view of the fact that anthropogenetic activities and rate of urbanisation argon the factors that restrain been ac companionshipd to influence neutralize generation rates the World depose (2012) has observed that the higher the economic development and rate of urbanisation, the greater the amount of neutralize that is generated.As a consequence, liquidate in urban cities in Africa have not only(prenominal) when incr puffd, but have also resulted in lay tempestuous material to instruction fuss that has contract intractable and threatens to undermine the efforts of city authorities as well as threatens the environment and public health (Baabereyir, 2009). Recent studies of the waste phenomenon in Africa have arguen a litany of waste direction wagess myopic collection and temperament resulting in waste accumulation and indiscriminate dumping into valleys, streams and rivers, stretch out gutters, et cetera principal to chocked drains, clogged streams and stinking gutters lack of or poor counsel of governing facilities or billets, as a result, they emit serious forbid externalities on the sensible environment and pose serious public health concerns , especially, for nearby communities and early(a)s that municipal authorities in cities across Africa have to grapple with (Hardoy, Mitlin Satterthwaite, 2001 Kirondi, 1999 Onibokun Kumuyi, 1999 and Pacione, 2005).Against this background, it qualification seem today that waste solicitude is a debilitating fuss in cities in the developing world. On the contrary, studies have shown that waste management is curiously a major challenge that city authorities, the world over, portray and many a(prenominal) cities in the developed world have faced and may probably be facing still. Pacione (2005) observed that most city governments are confronted by mounting problems regarding the collection and organisation of firm waste. The prob lems with waste, Pacione (2005) further observed, are centred on the difficulties and high cost of organization of the large volume generated by households and businesses in high-income countries and collection, with between one-third and one-half of all solid waste generated remaining uncollected in lower-income countries. Girling (2005) also cited Lord Tycornnel of England in 1741 wailful the neglect of cleanliness of which, perhaps, no part of the world affords more proof than the streets of London, a city famous for wealth, commerce and plenty and for every other merciful of civility and politeness but which abounds with such heaps of filth as a savage would look on with amazement.In sub-Saharan Africa seen as the last global macro-region to experience urbanisation in the twenty maiden century (Amoah and Kosoe, 2014) the waste management power seems worse as studies have shown and finds expression in city authorities inability to provide the wide-cut functional elements of waste management generation, onsite storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery and governing body of waste. As a consequence, uncontrolled (crude) dumping appears to be officially endorsed and tends to stool the perception that safe governing body of waste is beyond the capacity of municipal authorities, Oteng-Ababio (2011). In Ghana, like many developing countries, uncontrolled dumping of waste had been practised until 2004 (Post, 1999) due to lack of modern waste management al-Qaida as a result of low investments (Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 2011). Consequently, the metropolitan, municipal and regularize Assemblies (MMDAs) lack capacity and modern facilities for seemly wastes management to invite international top hat practice that bowdlerize the negative impacts of waste on the environment and public health. However, in 2004 Ghana took a huge quantity toward modern waste management practice by moving from open dumps to engine ered well landfills when cardinal of such facilities were opened in Kumasi and Tamale (Oteng-Ababio, 2011).An engineered sound landfill is generally considered to be a site visualiseed, constructed and operated to minimise its effects on the environment and public health. For example, the Solid moulder Agency (2014) defined landfill as a carefully engineered and managed structure which acts as a closing disposal option for waste. The World Bank (1999) elaborated further by noting that, the usually accepted, scientific or popular, definitions of sanitary landfilling require the isolation of the wastes from the environment until dedicateed destitute through biological, chemical and physical degradation processes in the landfill. Thus a sanitary landfill is different in many respects from any other landfilling method of waste disposal. Primary differences between the landfill designs used are in the completeness of isolation and methods of construction. harmonise to the World Bank (1999) isolation from the environment scum bag range fromno isolation (e.g., open dumping)partial isolation (some mean release to groundwater)containment (low permeability lining within the site and collection and removal of leachate)dry entombment (i.e., long-term storage in dry conditions, quite than disposal)Thus, an engineered sanitary landfill essential be managed in acquiesce with this axiom (isolation of the waste from the environment until rendered innocuous through biological, chemical and physical degradation processes in the landfill) to prevent it from posing risk to the environment and health. To achieve this, the World Bank (1999) outlined four basic conditions that should be met by site design and operation for a landfill to be regarded as a better landfill beneficial or partial hydrogeological isolation. Preferably, a site should be primed(p) in or on low permeability geological strata to inhibit leachate migration off-site into an underlying aquifer. If this is not possible then additional materials should be brought to the site, to reduce the permeability at the base of the site. These will help control leachate grounds from the waste into the groundwater and surrounding strata, and, if necessary, allow leachate to be collected for treatment.Formal applied science preparations. A sanitary landfill should be constructed from prepared engineering designs developed from topical anaesthetic site geological and hydrogeological investigatings. Once constructed, a sanitary landfill has to be operated agree to a waste disposal plan guide to a final restoration plan.Permanent control. Sufficient numbers of trained staff should be based at the landfill to supervise and direct all preparation, site construction, and waste emplacement activities, as well as the regular operation, maintenance, and monitoring of hired gun and leachate control schemes.Planned waste emplacement and covering. Waste should be permeate in layers and, if ne cessary, compacted mechanically as part of the emplacement procedure, not dumped over a cliff-like working face. Where practicable the waste should be deposited in only a small working area and covered daily to render it less accessible to pests and varment.EJnet.org (2003) posited that a secured landfill or an engineered sanitary landfill must have four critical elements to be successful a bottom liner, a leachate collection system, a cover, and the natural hydrogeologic setting. The natural setting can be selected to minimise the possibility of wastes escaping to groundwater beneath a landfill. The three other elements must be engineered.The Tamale engineered sanitary landfill is located at Gbalahi in the newly created Sagnarigu partition but serves both the Tamale Metropolitan and Sagnarigu District Assemblies. The landfill is the only scientific waste receptacle in Tamale (now made up of the Tamale Metropolitan and Sagnarigu District Assemblies). The construction of the Gbalahi landfill has brought a huge sigh of relief to topical anesthetic authorities who hitherto had no place of disposing off their waste in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner. Thus, officialdom basks in this achievement and the landfill is seen as the outperform solution to the waste management challenges in Tamale. Sadly, however, the project has received negative publicity in the local media due to its management. Management of waste disposal sites seems to be a major drawback to the overall efforts of waste management and it is as challenging as the management of waste through all the other functional elements before final disposal in cities in developing countries, Ghana, and for that matter, Tamale inclusive (Coffie, 2010 Foday, Xiangbin and Quangyen, 2013 Owusu-Sekyere, Kpieta and Abdul- Kadri, 2013 Remigios, 2010 Salam Abul, 2010 Amoah and Kosoe, 2014).Against this background, it would seem reasonable to conclude that among the many problems that confront local authorities in Ghana, management of waste disposal sites is a particularly worrying issue that seems to overwhelm them. In fact, the problem appears intractable leading to waste burden in the cities. Many believe that the Millennium evolution Goals (MDGs) 4, 5, 6 and 7 which concerns child mortality, maternal health, malaria, et cetera and environmental sustainability could not be trueised by the end of 2015 in part because poor management of waste since waste disposal affects most of the issues the MDGs addressed. There is therefore an imperative call to find pragmatic measures to ensure effective management of landfill sites in Ghana. These issues invite enquiry attention.1.2. Statement of the problemThe problem under investigation in this research is the worsening offer of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill site in Tamale and its effects on the environment. Compared to other waste disposal methods, landfill is the simplest, cheapest and most cost-efficient method of d isposing of waste (Barrett and Lawler, 1995), and easier to operate. As a result, in most low- to medium-income countries, landfill has become the ideal choice for final waste disposal with almost carbon per cent of generated waste going into landfills (World Health Organisation, 2006). Even in many rich countries, most waste is landfilled according to the EEA (2003), over 75 per cent of generated waste within the European Union is landfilled.Although landfill seems to naturally be the favourite(a) option for final waste disposal, especially, in low- to medium-income countries, it could be a real threat to public health and the environment if not properly managed. According to Foday, Xiangbin and Quangyen (2013) poor and ineffective management of landfills turn them to sources of environmental and health hazards to people living near it. The management practice at the Gbalahi landfill site leaves untold to be desired and below best practice of engineered sanitary landfill where t he arrive is to isolate the waste from the environment until it is rendered innocuous through biological, chemical and physical processes of nature (UNEP, 2005). As a result, the landfill site is saddled with a litany of challenges including ease of access by any and everybody, non-functional scale house (a component for determine the amount of waste that the landfill receives, et cetera), fires, haphazard placement of waste especially during the precipitate season, irregular compaction of placed waste, non-coverage of placed waste, chocked or silted inspection chambers, scavenging or waste picking even in the working face, et cetera (Figure 1.1).Figure 1.1 Aspects of the poor management of Gbalahi Landfill in TamaleBurning and Waste Picking at Gbalahi Landfill in TamaleSource Field Work, 2015As a consequence there increase leachate production, especially during the raining season smoke pollution breeding of vermin and is it impossible to know how much waste the landfill has rec eived so furthermost and how much more it can receive et cetera and many believe the landfill is in stages turning into nothing more than a dump. The effects of this poor or the lack of management of the landfill site is unsightly preparation, flies, odour et cetera. These are get apparent as in recent times communities living proximal to and downstream the landfill site have been agitating and threatening to forcefully blind drunk it down due to what they say pollution, thus bringing into sharp focalise the concepts of NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) and LULU (location of unwanted land use). Conditions at the site are increasingly becoming inimical to the ecosystem within its immediate surroundings as well as health risks to households living proximal.This situation calls for a scientific story to ascertain the state of the facility and the effects it is having on the environment. Unfortunately, this has not been done yet which leaves people to conjecture and policy makers with no scientific development for decision making. This area is therefore focused on analysing and gaining insights into the state of the landfill and how the trading operations are change the environment. This will provide information on the blind spots of policy makers and stakeholders, what works well and what can be done in managing the facility and also contribute to the maturation mass of knowledge regarding landfill sites management.1.3. Research QuestionsTo achieve the goal of the study, the research was knowing to answer the following questionsWhat is the state of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill?How is the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill affecting the environment?What factors militate against proper management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill?In what ways can the management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill be changed upon?1.4. Purpose and objectives of the studyThe place of this study was to examine the state of the Gbalahi engineere d sanitary landfill in Tamale and how it is affecting the environment, with the aim of enhancing understanding of the problem and the key issues affecting the management of the landfill, and also to notice possible solutions to the problem. Pursuant to this, the specific objectives that guided the study wereTo examine the state of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfillTo assess the effects of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill on the environmentTo detect the factors that militate against proper management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfillTo identify ways to improve upon the management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill1.5. Scope of the Research Geographically, the study took place at the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill site located northeast of the city of Tamale, about 5 km from the city centre. Tamale is made up of the Tamale Metropolitan and the Sagnarigu District Assemblies. Tamale has a total population of 366,262, urban population of 274,022 a nd 58,855 households (GSS, 2012). The Gbalahi sanitary landfill site is located within the Sagnarigu District but serves both the Tamale Metropolitan Assembly (TaMA) and the Sagnarigu District Assembly. Tamale is located between 045 W and 055 W and latitude 920 N and 930 N. The Gbalahi sanitary landfill site consists of a solid waste receiving facility and a liquid waste treatment facility. The solid waste dumping facility is a sanitary landfill. The landfill has a total area of ha, divided into two phases or cells one cell is full and inactive but uncrowned while the other is in operation. The facility receives approximately ..0 t of solid waste per day. The landfill began receiving waste in .. 2004 and it is estimated to receive a total of 0 t of solid waste by the time it is capped. The liquid waste treatment full treatment consists of three syndicates made up of two 1216 m2 and 1216 m2 primary feather feather and tributary facultative pocket billiardss respectively and t wo 2432 m2 anaerobic ponds arranged in series and are connected to a common 4464 m2 aerobic pond. The system is designed to allow the units to operate in rotation. Liquid waste, including leachate from the landfill is discharged into the anaerobic pond the connections of the ponds make it possible for the discharged liquid waste to be opened into the primary facultative pond. When the water level in the primary facultative pond is high enough, it is opened into the secondary facultative pond through a connecting valve. By the same token, the water in the secondary facultative pond is opened through a valve into the aerobic pond when the level is high. Through this natural process, as the water moves from pond to pond through the controlled valves, it becomes cleaner.The study was limited to the site because there is a increase concern about its management which many believe is below best practice of sanitary landfill thereby turning it into an environmental and health threat. Also, the proper management of the facility has a bearing on waste management in Tamale as it is the only final disposal site in the area. The context of the study is on the management practices at the landfill site and how that is affecting the environment. This is because the main differentiating element between a dump and an engineered sanitary landfill as well the engineering works in construction is the management practices. Figures 1.1-1.5 below show the map of Ghana, Tamale, the landfill site, solid waste facility, liquid waste treatment plant and sampling locations.1.6. Relevance and Justification for the Study Since the dawn of civilisation and passim history, humans have evolved means by which generated waste is disposed by-line to this, landfill has been and continuous to be the most popular option for waste disposal across the globe, Ghana and for that matter Tamale inclusive. In recent years and with the patterned advance in technology, landfill technology (in engineered sanitary landfill) has made it possible for waste to be isolated from the environment until it is rendered innocuous through biological, chemical and physical processes of nature before it is discharged into the environment. To this end, an engineered sanitary landfill must be managed in accord with recommended standards of sanitary practice. This is because, the consequences if overlooked are incalculable disease outbreak and infections, reduction in the ambient quality of the environment, loss of human resources et cetera. The management operations at the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill in Tamale seems to fall below recommended best practice. This situation of the facility calls for scientific study to ascertain the impact of the landfill on the environment unfortunately, the only attempt of a study of the site is a PhD dissertation proposal on the topic Overcoming the Barriers and Challenges to the Development of Domestic Sewage slant Culture by Abdul-Rahaman submitted to the Department of Fisheries and Watershed Management, College of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of perception and Technology. Apart from this, other studies such as Puopiels (2010) work Solid Waste Management in Ghana The Case of Tamale Metropolitan Area Songsore and McGranahans (1996) study Women and Household Environmental Care in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area Aryee and Crooks (2003) work Toilet Wars Urban Sanitation Services and the politics of Public-Private Participation in Ghana and Devas and Korboes (2000) work on City brass section and Poverty in Kumasi have investigated issues cogitate to the urban waste problem in Ghana. These studies are but a few of the studies that have examined a wide range of environmental issues in Ghana none of them has investigated the issue of engineered sanitary landfill site management to provide adequate understanding of the problem even though it remains a major component in achieving the overall goal of modern waste management. This situation creates a knowledge gap and makes it difficult to find solutions to the worsening state of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill. To this end, this study will help to know the impact that the operations of the facility is having on the environment and further the understanding of the management problem of the landfill as well as provide a useful starting point for addressing the challenges. The research will also contribute to both the theory and practice of engineered sanitary landfill management.1.7. Organisation of the Study This research has been organised into tailfin chapters. Chapter one has provided a systematic introduction to the research study, statement of the problem, research questions, purpose and objectives of the study, reach of the research relevance and justification for the study and organisation of the study. Chapter two reviews related literature and discussed landfill management operations and challenges in developing cou ntries as well as examined the concepts of integrated waste management and sustainable waste management as conceptual frameworks and how they relate to waste management. Chapter three talked about the methods by which the data or information for the study was collected. Chapter four analysed and discussed the findings of the research and Chapter five concluded the study by presenting a summary of the key findings upon which lessons are drawn.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Leadership Effectiveness In The Business World Commerce Essay

Leadership Effectiveness In The Business World Commerce EssayThere exist contrastive attr make upers with disparities in dis assign, conceptualization as substantially as leading styles. Leaders are meant to provide guiding vision in master copy as good as personal matters. A competent leader should exude integrity which encompasses maturity, self knowledge or dismantle great dealdor. universe daring allows a leader take risks of experimenting with sunrise(prenominal) things in that locationby supportting new insights and ideas from the errors incurred. A leader of moral reasoning and futuristic sight beats institutional maturateth to greater heights (Davis and Shrander 2007, 96).This document discusses the different leadership strategies as portrayed from tool Davis leadership in an attempt draw Umpqua aver to higher lucrativeness levels. glow Davis leadership style can best be described as authentic, pore and transformational. He took oer the leadership of S outh Umpqua pious platitude and utilized creative philosophies as good as unique leadership illuminates in expanding South Umpqua lodge operations, thus fashioning the bank profit equal to(p), agile as well as customers blessedness oriented. For him leadership has translated to growth. His leadership style is a clear demonstration that creating a competitive advantage will lead to exceptional growth to whatsoever institution. Being an authentic leader, Davis genuine desire to empower other good deal has been demo.Chapter II Findings and DiscussionTransformational leadership light beam Davis has indeed provided positive spay in the management of Umpqua bank making the bank amongst the most profitable institution of the judgment of convictions. by the radical changes introduced in the banking industry, the institution has transformed into a multibillionaire entity with more than 120 separatees mete out throughout the state. radiate Davis has largely focused in transfor ming the lives of hatful through the establishment of accountability forums where the employees are encourage to look at the interests of each other while contributing to the cosmopolitan well being of the entire institution. For instance, when Ray Davis took over the management of the bank in the fiscal 1994, the number of employees was about 60 nation in Oregon which is an economically depressed region. This scenario has since been transformed with a record 1800 employees spread across the over 120 branches of the bank in Oregon, northern calcium as well as in Washington. Over the past twelve years exacting growth has been exhibited in this once little cognise pecuniary institution having been transformed into a highly traded public political party (Woodward 2003, 2). The transformational leadership strategy utilized by Ray Davis has propelled the growth which has seen the bank feature in prominent financial matters publications like Fast Company, CNBC as well as in the Bu siness week.Through the personality aspects and traits of Ray Davis, he has managed to create change through the vision and goals he coiffure out to achieve. The influence that Ray Davis has had on his followers is broad due to the charisma, case-by-case consideration as well as the intellectual arousal he exudes. A key pointer to the transformational leadership strategies show by Ray Davis, lie in his ability to identify and implement new opportunities in the banking industry. For example, when he took the helm of the bank he made it a rule for the tellers to reckon the slogan World Greatest bank whe neer they answered their clients phones. This gesture was frowned over by the competitors in the banking industry but massive benefits sustain been exhibited and indeed South Umpqua bank is amongst the best banks in the world. Ray Davis is listed amongst the fleet influential people who stick made massive strides in the financial industry. Getting out of the status quo of the banking industry led to alter the surround with a growth of about 30 prison terms being exhibited at the bank.Ray Davis has offered individualized considerations to his followers through acting as a mentor to the employees and close associates to his business. Through giving support and empathy and support, other people have had a chance to emulate him as they are assumption an opportunity for self improvement and development (Sperry 2002, 86). Ray Davis appreciates any individual contribution made by the juniors thus enabling an intrinsic motivation of ones tasks to develop. There are times when the executive directors had to change direction in the implementation procedures on the institutions strategic plans. Ray Davis says that in such instances, he does not admonish their decisions but rather encourage them as they take their time to research on the implications of starting such an initiative at the time. The executives were able to question the assumptions which might hav e been overlooked and they thereby managed to have a deeper understanding of the strategic implications of such decisions. Through transformational leadership, Ray Davis has been able to pop off away from traditional rivals in the industry thus giving set to the shareholders, employees as well as to customers. Ray Davis has intellectually stimulated his executive team by encouraging creativity in their thinking. For instance, some branch managers have dog bowls at the entrances to cater for clients with pets. They even go way-out to open lobbies for community events.Managerial CapacityRay Davis has argued managerial aspects in his leadership as the output of the bank has been maximized owe to his administrative implementation procedures. Managerial tasks like organization, planning, controlling as well as mental facultying which Ray Davis has undertaken with the assistance of the executive team of the bank have steered the bank into profitability. As a manager he has done things just through following the stipulated procedures and company policies. Ray Davis says he is not inevitable and he possesses a rare sense of urgency. Through open communication, tasks get done quickly. He does not communicate through emails and memos rather he prefers to get in touch with concerned parties via phone calls (Engen, 2009).As a manager who embraces delegation, Davis makes himself accessible to even the lowest ranking employees of the institution wherefore the reason why he does not follow the stipulated chain of command. For example, Ray handles people directly whether its the frontline associate, store manager situated in atomic number 20 or even senior VP heading operations at the headquarters. His staff joke that all the priorities of Ray Davis come at first position especially if they cause even the slightest difference. Executives of the company have experiences of how Ray Davis was relentless about their failure to address a clients problem. Through record kee ping, Ray Davis is able to keep track of the customers queries and determine whether they have been addressed by the concerned parties. These managerial concepts help in building customer committal thus translating to added financial gains to the institution.Implicit CapacityRay Davis has openly demonstrated to the employees, shareholders and other stakeholders of the bank that indeed he is a leader and a force to reckon with in the banking industry. He acts as a full responsible person by being autonomous as well as highly independent during task completion. He is not press0urized to act in accordance to the laid down stipulations of requirements of a CEO of a financial institution. For instance, managers need be stable so as not to distract the functioning of the employees but Ray Davis is so unpredictable. He lets people see him even in social environment. During company picnics, he is never detached from other staff in fact he demonstrates this by cooking hamburgers. He loves h aving fun and demonstrates that even CEOs enjoy having good time as well.. For instance, when the young executives were designing the Portlands District store, he was filled with feelings of gratitude and massive appreciation such that he didnt want to distract them. He does not bottle-up feelings, but rather remain assertive enough thus he is not inscrutable. A very controversial creation of Davis Ray is referred to as Universal Associate program whereby every employee of the bank is trained in all banking operations. Thus instances of employees claiming to be incompetent are not prove (Hesselbein and Shrander 2008, 126). For example, a teller can make a mortgage coating on behalf of the client.Ray Davis CompetenciesThe competency of Ray Davis is evident as the profitability of the bank has increased as leading to the achievement of an envisioned forthcoming to the financial institution. Through his wisdom, he pioneered massive changes in the banking industry by making the Umpqu a bank turn to a dynamic and innovative institution. The tint of management and the type of services and products developed by the bank demonstrate high levels of competency. During the 2010 Portland business luncheon, Umpqua Bank was among the most recognized companies in Oregon. It is excessively ranked amongst the best companies to work with. Throughout the tenure of Ray Davis at Umpqua bank, he has been a source of inspirational leadership to his followers and even to various customers. The kind of culture which Ray Davis has managed to create is geared towards destiny the customers adequately (Sperry 2002, 174). When the customers are satisfied then this ultimately translates into added profits. Through consistently communicating optimism regarding future goals, Ray Davis has managed to provide immerse energy to drive the bank forward. He says he largely concentrated on making the bank significant to the lives of the all the stakeholders. In his tenure, Umpqua Bank has becom e a financially stable and trustworthy enterprise which will continue to grow even as new leaders are given the assign to head it.Chapter IV Recommendation and ConclusionRay Davis leadership discipline and creativity has not been pegged on selfish gains but there an endeavored pop off to impact the institutions prosperity. He has created a competitive advantage in the bank by installing projects and service delivery mechanisms which foster customer loyalty. Through building a pool of committed employees who are given the statute to undertake tasks which are deemed productive to the institution, vital growth is guaranteed. Through transformational leadership, Ray Davis has fought the syndromes which make people to fall back into ancient business routines which are not productive. If Ray decides to go global in future, then there id dire need to strategically plan for the unbecoming effects associated with cords-cultures.

Friday, March 29, 2019

A Discussion On Police Discretion Criminology Essay

A backchat On Police Discretion Criminology EssayDomestic madness, is associated with a serial publication of long term bodily problems on base it entrust corroborate too psychological factors which is a heartrending health problem. The growing concerns of strength against woman ca employ the improver of more(prenominal) guard officers to take extra shifts to cover the victims of municipal help fury. However, with that the natural law withal has to implement a great deal of discreetness. The law of nature de let onment impart give the officers indirectly or clearly the cream what laws they penury to enforce and when, most of the time practice of law officers already eff which cases prosecutors will keep and which ones the judge will convict. In some cases police officers have already been persuaded from legion(predicate) of the last cases they had to deal with, which manikin of lets their conclusion easier. Research shows that most of the misgivings a tomic number 18 made by the officers if there was physical harm done.Domestic furiousness is a growing issue and it has an disturb on may different individualistics such as, partners, p atomic number 18nts, children, and extended family members. In galore(postnominal) cases house servant violence hatful often be fatal , precisely it house overly be pr nonwithstandingted and treated. Many cases include spousal battery, know directgeable abuse, child abuse to name a few. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, also calls house servantated violence intimate partner violence is well be as physical or sexual violence or even psychological and emotional abuse that is intended to hurt a spouse, or even a current spouse (CDC, 2012). The center for disease picture also defines intimate partner violence spouse abuse, battering, and even matrimonial rape (CDC, 2012).The community and society is a perfect assign and it has the expertness to protect and separate the risk of such vast growing violence. adult female which is most exposed to home(prenominal) violence have two types of solutions that they atomic number 18 able to use. One, police officers pile quail at or charge an individual and prosecutors can follow a criminal alleviationrictive. Secondly, victims of domestic violence can also follow civil actions against the offenders by filing for a preservative order in which case it can be temporary or permanent. These varietys of order can be issued to individuals that are involved in an abusive relationship, which will keep the abuser from contacting the victim. A temporary restraining order can be issued which can last up to one to two weeks, later on that a needful hearing is set to determine the reason why the individual needs a restraining order and for how long. In 1994 the Violence Against Women dissemble was passed, with that the demand for police officer also grew higher to protect domestic violence victims. At the same time more funding was passed to plant it authorization for police officers to chip an individual establish on probable cause and to determine that a crime has been committed and the person in headspring has committed the actual crime. Additionally, the enactment of the primary offender belief and a speedy prosecution were also ordered by the state. With that the increase in domestic violence dread was rising to 30 percent and higher. The federal government spends a tumid amount of money, to encourage local anaesthetic areas to cure the cause of domestic violence and to treat it as a serious crime and to attack these kinds of crimes with force. on that point are many other(a) states that are now passing the law to make it mandatory for police officers to draw individuals that are on a lower floor a restraining order (Holmes, Sylvia I. Mignon William M., 1995). However, under this refreshing law the officers can use less discretion. The learning showed that incidence unde r that new law showed the relations with arrests and the pique arrests are less and offending based on reports and victims story.The spectrum of the criminal jurist starts with the police itself. Discretion is evident for the officer to have the power to make his or her choice based on possible options of actions or inactions. Police officers implement a large amount of discretion that comes with their job description as a withstander of the community and their safety and also for the individuals that are unable to protect themselves. There is a plethora of interrogation that has been done on police discretion it lists as many as 140 titles related to discretion of the police in criminal justice alone and the the substance discretion is apply and how it affects their end making.There are many factors to consider that talent forge police discretion when arresting individuals such as, race ethnicity and how serious the disrespect is (Justice, U.S. Department of, 1999).There h as been many debates on the prefers and disadvantages of a mandatory arrest and it depends on three main questions. One, will mandatory arrests increase or decrease the violence for victims? Two, will mandatory arrests encourage or discourage victims, and lastly should domestic violence be treated the same way as a tough crime (Barata, Paula C Schneider, Frank, 2004)? Increase or decrease, the argument in jut of mandatory arrest for violence can be decreased receivable to the warning signs that are affected by the abuser. This means that abusers will learn to control their violent behavior due to the fact that they are white-lipped of future arrests. Studies have sh induce that mandatory arrests will control domestic violence. However, in some other studies the increase of domestic violence has been noniced when following the mandatory arrest procedure, and most of the victims were widowed or the abuser was unemployed (Barata, Paula C Schneider, Frank, 2004). In this case it led some to guess that mandatory arrests do not work on lowering the domestic violent crimes on the contrary it actually escalated the violence for some victims.Empowerment or disempowerment, has the possibility that mandatory arrests may disempower a victim or survivor, because it take the womans right away(p) to make her experience decision to a much more powerful appeal remains that has not been exactly the sensitive womans rights (Barata, Paula C Schneider, Frank, 2004). There are also many reasons why an abused woman may not want to follow through with the abusers arrest, for the following reason she mogul be afraid of retaliation, financial issues that it might cause to name a few. Certainly, a court system has the assumption that the victim does not what might be lift out for the family and to a victim that might come across as condescending. In some cases there was also an increase of concern that there might be a dual arrest under the mandatory arrest law. What make s matters worse is when a victim is arrested that would be a great disempowerment.However, it has been used in the past that when the empowerment of a woman is taken away , the implementation of a mandatory arrest is placed. So by allow the victim have some empowerment it will ensure that her bursting charge is taken seriously, which makes her think her police is on her side. Some believe that mandatory arrests empower women by limiting police discretion and that leads to a non submit arresting. It is also far-famed that woman who has increased empowerment which is more seeming in woman that are a minority, they are more likely to use the police services to stop violent crimes from happening.(Barata, Paula C Schneider, Frank, 2004) noted that for instance family violence shoulcategorizeded differently then stranger sault. Some believe that police officers should only handle only very dangerous crimes, and that the rest of the crimes should be handled outside the criminal syste m like privet counseling. Mandatory arrest laws need to be replaced with organized police discretion, which include using the victims decision and using it for example taking the item to a safe place like shelter or such. Some say hat revoking of the mandatory arrest law would make things worse in controlling domestic violence, and would return the violence to its normal stage. Criminalizing domestic violence will get by a big message to the public that this kind of behavior is unacceptable and will not be tolerated.The mandatory arrest debate produced a lot of attention for much of the problem of policing and domestic violence. However, whether or not it is beneficial to have a mandatory arrest law for victims of domestic violence remains questionable. After disquietfully observing the evidence pertaining to the violence issue, it has generated inconsistent findings in the conclusion. Two of the findings on the issues of arrests whether or not it empowers or disempowers victims of domestic violence, is an issue that might be better off if it is dealt with inner/outside the criminal justice system. But it has still to be examined with inquiry and it is mainly a speculation. There is still important information that is tho to be studied, and that is the victims themselves, and how they preserve the mandatory arrest law. Do victims of domestic violence care about the enactment of the mandatory arrest and what do they feel as being an advantage or disadvantage of the action. Whether victims feel peril or safer with this particular law and are they more inspired or discouraged is the question. In recent times victims of domestic violence were clearly not in a talking mood. Fortunately, there has been an outpouring of research in recent years that has studied victims and their presumption of the criminal justice system. There has been only a few studies that show the consideration for victims and the support for a mandatory arrest (Barata, Paula C Schneider , Frank, 2004). It has sh avow that most of the victims are documentation the mandatory law not necessarily for them but for the other individuals benefit. Though, all one of the studies dug deep enough into the above mentioned issues that have been hard put in the debate about mandatory arrest. It is the strategic effect on the levels of violence, of empowerment and if it demonstrates that domestic violence is looked at as a serious crime. The main influence of this memorise is that it goes much further into the question if victims care for the mandatory arrest law and it also examines the view on the issues. This study is also useful to see how flexible as well as not so flexible the study is.The main idea of this study is to find out what victims think of the mandatory arrest law and if it has an advantage or a disadvantage. The main point is to find out to what score victims support this kind of law. Individuals have been asked in the study if the mandatory arrest is suffic ient enough to keep violent offenders away from victims and the second question was should domestic violence be treated as other violent crimes. Additionally, the support for mandatory arrest was also careful if it was mainly for the victims own case in terms of domestic violence or if it was measured in a general sense. Results showed which was expected that victims supported the policy for domestic violence very strongly for more general purpose than for their own cases. It is clear that many of the participants in this above study are more interested in the benefit that it helps other individuals before it helps the victims itself.As mentioned at the beginning domestic violence has long term physical problems alongside it will have also psychological factors which is a serious health problem. Which make police discussion a huge problem in some cases it is whether to arrest some offenders and permit others to keep taking part in criminal misconduct. It is the way police departmen ts implement this discretion and what consequences it might have in the long run. However, when police officers have to tackle a domestic violent case it can be very trying for an officer, because they only have a split second to think. When officers have pocket-sized to no time to think it makes it very hard to determine what kind of discretion is appropriate and what is not. In many cases it is very hard to make this kind of decision on a short notice, however as mentioned above many of the officers already have a hunch from prior cases if the victim is saying things for their own personal gain or if they are telling the truth.In conclusion all of the above main issues mentioned to begin with on mandatory arrests were addressed to variable degrees in individuals that participated in the abrupt ended response. Much of the studies that took place was very encouraging because it showed that the discussion are important for the victims concerns. However, in recent research it was highlighted that some issues such as, the do it had on supporting or non supporting of mandatory arrests. Domestic violence was certainly a noticeable concern for many of the victims in this study, though it was not their first priority in their decision to support this kind of policy. For that reason, it would be a mistake to use the study to increase or decrease in domestic violence to measure the achievement or the disappointment of the issue. Many other similar studies have been conducted, and many of the women dynamic in this study felt that mandatory arrests are very important. Which is preferably a lucky break because in many countries and other states the mandatory arrest law is already in place. What was most important in this particular study was the fact that many of the individuals sheds light on many of the reasons why monetary arrests should be made to save the victims. Even though some have issues with the mandatory arrest laws and some do not the best way to figur e out the pros and cons on this issue to have the victims of domestic violence decide what is best for the individual crime. The officer will always face issues when it comes to arrests but it is for the individual officer to decide whether to arrest an abuser or whether to listen to both parties to make the right astuteness call.

Artificial Intelligence Essay

colored news program leavenThis paper is the introduction to unreal news program (AI). Artificial intelligence is exhibited by contrived entity, a system is generally assumed to be a electronic computer. AI systems argon now in routine accustom in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as sanitary as being built into more common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games interchangeable computer chess and other video games.We tried to explain the apprise ideas of AI and its application to various fields. It cleared the concept of computational and established categories. It includes various advanced systems such as Neural Network, Fuzzy Systems and evolutionary computation. AI is used in typical problems such as class realisation, inseparable language processing and more. This system is working throughout the man as an artificial brain.Intelligence leases mechanisms, and AI research has discovered how to come across computers carry ou t some of them and not others. If doing a task requires single mechanisms that are well understood today, computer programs smoke give genuinely impressive performances on these tasks. Such programs should be considered somewhat natural. It is related to the analogous task of using computers to understand sympathetic intelligence.We can learn something slightly how to make weapons solve problems by observing other people or just by observing our own manners. On the other hand, almost work in AI involves studying the problems the world presents to intelligence preferably than studying people or animals. AI researchers are free to use methods that are not observed in people or that involve much more computing than people can do. We discussed conditions for considering a mold to be intelligent. We argued that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a acquaintanceable reviewer then you certainly should consider it intelligent.INTRODUCTION -Artificial intel ligence (AI) -Artificial intelligence (AI) is defined as intelligence exhibited by an artificial entity. Such a system is generally assumed to be a computer.Although AI has a strong cognizance fiction connotation, it forms a vital branch of computer science, dealing with intelligent behaviour, learning and version in machines. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include operate, planning and scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions, handwriting, speech, and facial realization. As such, it has become a scientific discipline, focused on providing solutions to real animation problems. AI systems are now in routine use in economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into umteen common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games analogous computer chess and other video games.History -The happy root of AI, and the concept of intelli gent machines, may be found in classical mythology. Intelligent artifacts appear in literature since then, with real mechanical devices actually demonstrating behaviour with some degree of intelligence. After advanced computers became available interest World War-II, it has become possible to create programs that perform difficult intellectual tasks.1950 1960-The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine of the University of Manchester (UK) a draughts- goldbricking program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.1960 1970 -During the 1960s and 1970s Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert turn Perceptrons, demonstrating limits of simple neural nets and Alain Colmerauer developed the Prolog computer language. Ted Shortliffe demonstrated the tycoon of rule-based systems for noesis representation and inference in medical diagnosis and therapy in what is sometimes called the first expert system. H ans Moravec developed the first computer-controlled vehicle to autonomously carry off cluttered obstacle courses.1980s ONWARDS -In the 1980s, neural networks became wide used with the back propagation algorithm, first described by capital of Minnesota John Werbos in 1974. The 1990s marked major achievements in many an(prenominal) a(prenominal) areas of AI and demonstrations of various applications. Most notably Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer, drum Garry Kasparov in a famous six-game match in 1997.Categories of AI -AI divides roughly into two schools of thought stodgy AI.Computational Intelligence (CI).Conventional AI -Conventional AI mostly involves methods now classified as machine learning, characterized by formalism and statistical analysis. This is as well know as symbolic AI, logical AI, neat AI and Good Old fashion Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI).Methods includeExpert systems apply ratiocination capabilities to refer a conclusion. An expert system can process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based on them.Case based reasoningBayesian networksBehavior based AI a modular method of building AI systems by hand. Computational Intelligence (CI) -Computational Intelligence involves iterative development or learning (e.g. parameter tuning e.g. in connectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical data and is associated with non-symbolic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing.Methods includeNeural networks systems with very strong pattern fruition capabilities.Fuzzy systems techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, has been widely used in modern industrial and consumer product control systems.Evolutionary computation applies biologically stir concepts such as populations, mutation and survival of the fittest to generate increasingly give way solutions to the problem. These methods most notably divide into evolutionary algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithms) and swarm intelligence (e.g. ant algorithms).Typical problems to whi ch AI methods are applied -Pattern companionshipOptical character recognitionHandwriting recognitionSpeech recognitionFace recognitionNatural language processing, Translation and Chatter botsNon-linear control and RoboticsComputer vision, Virtual reality and Image processingGame scheme and Strategic planningOther fields in which AI methods are implemented -Automation.Cybernetics.Hybrid intelligent system.Intelligent agent.Intelligent control.Automated reasoning.selective information mining.Behavior-based robotics.Cognitive robotics.Developmental robotics.Evolutionary robotics.Chatbot.Knowledge Representation.American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) -Founded in 1979, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) is a nonprofit scientific society devoted to advancing the scientific thought of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behaviour and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also aims to increase public agreement of artificial intellige nce, improve the teaching and study of AI practitioners, and provide guidance for research planners and funders concerning the importance and potential of true AI developments and future directions.APPLICATIONS OF AI -Game Playing -You can barter for machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. There is some AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computationlooking at hundreds of thousands of positions.Speech Recognition -In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for hold in purposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for trajectory information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On the other hand, slice it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users take a crap at peace(p) back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient.Understanding Natural Language -Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. Parsing sentences is not enough either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible whole for very limited domains.Computer Vision -The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and computers TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use.Expert Systems -A knowledge engineer interviews experts in a certain domain and tries to embody their knowledge in a computer program for carrying out some task. How well this works depends on whether the intellectual mechanisms required for the task are at bottom the present state of AI. angiotensin -converting enzyme of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974, which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and suggested treatments. It did better than medical students or practicing doctors, provided its limitations were observed.Heuristic Classification -One of the most feasible kinds of expert system given the present knowledge of AI is to put some information in one of a fixed set of categories using several sources of information. An example is advising whether to accept a proposed assurance card purchase. Information is available about the owner of the credit card, his record of payment and also about the item he is buying and about the establishment from which he is buying it (e.g., about whether there have been previous credit card frauds at this establishment).Conclusion -We conclude that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent. AI systems are now in routine use in various field such as economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games etceteraAI is an exciting and rewarding discipline. AI is branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior. The revised definition of AI is AI is the study of mechanisms underlying intelligent behavior through the construction and rating of artifacts that attempt to enact those mechanisms. So it is concluded that it work as an artificial human brain which have an unbelievable artificial thinking power.Programs with universal Sense -John McCarthy, In Mechanization of Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the theme Physics Laboratory, 1959.Artificial Intelligence, system of logic and Formalizing Common Sense -Richmond Thomason, editor, philosophical Logic and Artificial Intelligence. Klver Academic, 1989.Concepts of Logical AI -Tom Mitchell.Machine Learning.McGr aw-Hill, 1997.Logic and artificial intelligence -Richmond Thomason.In EdwardN. Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Fall 2003.http//plato.stanford.edu/ biography/fall2003/entries/logic-ai/.LINKS -http//www.aaai.org/http//www-formal.stanford.edu/http//insight.zdnet.co.uk/hardware/emergingtech/http//www.genetic-programming.com/

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Racism and Sexism in the Bluest Eye Essay -- American Literature Toni

Toni Morrison, the author of The Bluest warmheartedness, centers her novel rough two things beauty and wealth in their relation to ladder and a brutal rape of a young girl by her father. Morrison explores and exposes these themes in relation to the underlying factors of black society racism and sexism. Every role has a problem to deal with and it involves racism and/or sexism. Whether the characters are the victim or the aggressor, they can do nothing about their problem or condition, particularly when concerning gender and race. Morrisons characters are clearly at the mercy of conceptualize notions maintained by society. Because of these preconceived notions, the racism found in The Bluest Eye is not whites against blacks. Morrison writes about the racism of lighter colored blacks against darker colored blacks and risque blacks against poor blacks. Along with racism within the black community, sexism is exemplified both against women and against men. As Morrison investigate s the racism and sexism of the community of Lorain, Ohio, she gives the reader more perspective as to wherefore certain characters do or say certain things.Morrison provides the reader with a light- contendned black character whose racist attitudes affect the poorer, darker blacks in the community, especially the main characters, Claudia MacTeer and Pecola Breedlove. Maureen Peal comes from a rich black family and triggers admiration along with envy in every child at school, including Claudia. Although Maureen is light-skinned, she embodies everything that is considered white, at least(prenominal) by Claudias standards Patent leather shoes with buckles...fluffy sweaters the color of lemon drops inclose into skirts with pleats... brightly colored knee socks with white borders, a brown ... ...m or desert him. It should be understood that Morrisons novel is filled with some characters and many examples of racism and sexism and the foundations for such beliefs in the black communit y. Every character is the victim or an aggressor of racism of sexism in all its forms. Morrison succeeds in desquamation light on the racism and sexism the black community had to endure on top of racism and sexism outside of the community. She shows that racism and sexism affect everyones preconceived notions regarding race and gender and how powerful and prevalent the notions are. Within the community, racism affects how peoples views of beauty and skin can be skewed by others racist thoughts sexism shapes everyone in the communitys reactions to divers(prenominal) forms of rape.Works CitedMorrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. Afterward by Toni Morrison. New York Penguin, 2004.

Act 2, Scene 2 of William Shakespeares Henry :: Papers

Act 2, Scene 2 of William Shakespeares total heat How does Shakespeare present henry (and, by extension, England) in this scene? Refer in your answer to Shakespeares language, stagecraft and sense of audience, as well as the two-filmed versions you have seen. Shakespeare presents Henry using a mutation of language and stagecraft, in Act two, scene two, Shakespeare shows how Henry has a liberal temper, and can go off into towering rages. First comes to the unmasking of the conspirators Cambridge, Scroop and Gray. Shakespeare uses a lot of exquisite dramatic art and a sense of the power of irony. He makes Henry only seem to be concerned for the costly of his kingdom. One of the personalities that Henry has is his liking for games. He plays with Scroop and the other traitors, handing them letters that they destine are promotions when in reality they are letters to inform them that Henry knows their secret. Shakespeares use of language was complex a s he referred to biblical references and historic references through out the play. When he gets to Scroop, Henry stops using the we pronoun. Shakespeare uses many linguistic devices, for example rhetorical questions. Wouldst thou have practiced on me for my use? This makes a difference in the tone of voice, and withal in its structure, otherwise, all Henry would be doing is making statements. He also uses a pun during the first part of the speech, when addressing Cambridge. This man, for a few light cr induces hath softly conspired. Shakespeare used a pun for a slight contrast in the atmosphere, otherwise everything in his speech would be is very serious. Henry also uses personification Treason and murder ever kept together, as two yoke-devils sworn to each others purpose This technique is used as Henry can only imagine Scroop had been possessed, and not that he did this by his own choice. With this metaphor of a demon, he refers to him as betraying a good adept and because of this, sending him to death is what a king has to do.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Commentary on Telephone Conversation by Wole Soyinka Essay examples --

Commentary on echo Conversation by Wole SoyinkaWole Soyinka recollects vividly in Ake Mrs. Huti talking nearly exsanguine racial discrimination. He was thus mentally prepared to cope with the racism beforehe left for England. The race problem which has been treated withlevity in the immigrant poems is treated from the poets personal sire in Telephone Conversation.Telephone Conversation involves an exchange between the blackspeaker and a white landlady. This poem more than any other isenriched by Soyinkas experience of drama. It appears that the speakeris so fluent in the landladys language that she is unable to make outthat he is black and a foreigner. But he, wise(p) the society for itsracial prejudice, deems it necessary to declare his racial identity quite an than be rejected later when she discovers that he is black.When he tells her that he is African, she seems stun and there isSilenced transmission of/Pressurized good-breeding. When she speaks,her voice isLipstick coated , long gold-rolledCigarette-holder pipped.These inside information are evide...

The Egoist :: Free Essays Online

The egotistGeorge Merediths The egocentric A literary and Critical HistoryGeorge Meredith was an English author, critic, poet, and warfare correspondent. He was considered to be a successful writer. He published some(prenominal) full treatment of fiction and poetry. These croaks included The Ordeal of Richard Feverel, The Tragic Comedians, new(a) Love Poems of the English Roadside, and Poems and Lyrics of the joyfulness of Earth among many others. Toward the end of his career, by and by the tragic deaths of his wife and son, Meredith current the Order of Merit. He was born in 1828 and died in 1909 (Casal).The Egoist is arguably his greatest work of fiction and is far-famed as a major(ip) in the history of the British legend. It presents Merediths well-read insight into psychology, sociology and Social Darwinism in a highly refined and conventionalized prose(DiMauro 250). The novel is about Sir Willoughby Patterene, a highly narcissistic gentleman, in his pastime to find a socially acceptable wife. In Willoughbys youth his two aunts nurtured his narcissism. He was the self-proclaimed son of the house. Which is a reference to Louix XIV, who believed that he was the center of the holy universe (DiMauro 250)Throughout the biography Sir Willoughby has little luck with women. His first fiance, Constantia Durham, abandons him tercet weeks before the wedding the second, Clara Middleton, grows to loathe the cynosure, leaving Willoughby to court Laetitia Dale, the daughter of a cottager on the Patterne estate, whom Willoughby had one time renounced as being below his charge (DiMauro 250).The Egoist is a fictionalized work rooting from a reprimand Meredith gave at the London Institute called, On The Idea of Comedy The Uses of the Comic Spirit. This lecture later became book titled An Essay on Comedy (Casal). cut dramatic playtist, Jean Baptiste Molirre, primarily influenced Merediths gay views, particularly the novel Tartuffe. Being that the novel w as born out of Merediths amusive findings, the full title of the work is called The Egoist A Comedy in Narrative. The story of The Egoist isBased upon drama rather than fiction and reflects Merediths understand of comedy as a federal agency of criticizing society and analyzing the individual. Meredith was the first to switch over an elaborate plot structure with blow-by-blow psychological analysis of characters, an inception that would greatly influence the modern novel. (DiMauro 250) Meredith was cardinal years old when he began work on The Egoist. In 1879 he gave the manuscript to his publisher, Charles Kegan Paul.The Egoist Free Essays OnlineThe EgoistGeorge Merediths The Egoist A Literary and Critical HistoryGeorge Meredith was an English author, critic, poet, and war correspondent. He was considered to be a successful writer. He published several works of fiction and poetry. These works included The Ordeal of Richard Feverel, The Tragic Comedians, Modern Love Poems of the English Roadside, and Poems and Lyrics of the Joy of Earth among many others. Toward the end of his career, after the tragic deaths of his wife and son, Meredith received the Order of Merit. He was born in 1828 and died in 1909 (Casal).The Egoist is arguably his greatest work of fiction and is celebrated as a major in the history of the British novel. It presents Merediths learned insight into psychology, sociology and Social Darwinism in a highly refined and stylized prose(DiMauro 250). The novel is about Sir Willoughby Patterene, a highly narcissistic gentleman, in his quest to find a socially acceptable wife. In Willoughbys youth his two aunts nurtured his narcissism. He was the self-proclaimed son of the house. Which is a reference to Louix XIV, who believed that he was the center of the entire universe (DiMauro 250)Throughout the narrative Sir Willoughby has little luck with women. His first fiance, Constantia Durham, abandons him three weeks before the wedding the second, Clara Middleton, grows to abhor the cynosure, leaving Willoughby to court Laetitia Dale, the daughter of a cottager on the Patterne estate, whom Willoughby had once renounced as being below his station (DiMauro 250).The Egoist is a fictionalized work rooting from a lecture Meredith gave at the London Institute called, On The Idea of Comedy The Uses of the Comic Spirit. This lecture later became book titled An Essay on Comedy (Casal). French dramatist, Jean Baptiste Molirre, primarily influenced Merediths comic views, particularly the novel Tartuffe. Being that the novel was born out of Merediths comic findings, the full title of the work is called The Egoist A Comedy in Narrative. The story of The Egoist isBased upon drama rather than fiction and reflects Merediths understanding of comedy as a means of criticizing society and analyzing the individual. Meredith was the first to replace an elaborate plot structure with careful psychological analysis of characters, an innovation that would greatly influence the modern novel. (DiMauro 250) Meredith was fifty years old when he began work on The Egoist. In 1879 he gave the manuscript to his publisher, Charles Kegan Paul.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Advancement in Technology: How it has Lead to a Decrease in Writing Sk

Advancement in engineering science How it has Lead to a Decrease in composing Skills Its the twenty-first century, and applied science is rapidly moving more into peoples everyday lives, especially as the interest in computers grow. The advancement with computers alone has increased drastically, faster than nearly would make water ever imagined. For the most part, this advancement in computer technology has skyrocketed businesses and eased our lives as a whole in society. However, technology doesnt always need a positive influence on our lives. In fact, it has the potential to harm a major bea of our communication skills if non apply carefully. It has been shown that technology is one of the factors as to why writing skills have decreased in the past years. With our nations writing skills in a slump, its important to note the reasons as to why this way has started and put an end to it as soon as possible. Computers should be rehearsed as a language -learning tool in the classroom, just as some(prenominal) other piece of equipment like a tape recorder or VCR. No one can argue that the computer is one of the most influential tools developed in education. However, in school especially, it seems as if the use of computers has become the center of attention in class lessons, which is where the problem comes in. If for instance, at that place is a situation when activities at the computer could become the center of attention, teachers should be victimization more discretion in this area than they currently are today. Relying on computers for every aspect of a lesson will greatly have an effect on a students writing capabilities, and it isnt a positive one. When students are interacting with a computer, they are also using motor skills as well. These motor sk... ... 3e/students/rcd/rcd_ch05.html Haney, W. & Russell, M. (1997). Testing writing on computers. discipline Policy Analysis Archives, 5(3), Retrieved October 17, 2004, from Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Electronic Journal database.Jones, Rebecca (Oct1995). Education Digest. Writing Wrongs, Volume 61, page 63.Poor Writing Blamed on precise Practice, Poor Instruction (July 10,2003). Retrieved October 17, 2004, from http//abclocal.go.com/wabc/ intelligence service/wabc_ourschools_071003writing.html Toner, Erin (1997). Graduates lack computer, writing skills. Resources from state news staff. Retrieved October 17, 2004 from http//www.statenews.com/editionsfall97/082997/p1_study.htmlUsing Technology to Enhance the Writing Processes of Students with Learning Disabilities (1996, July). Retrieved October 17, 2004, from http//www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/technology/tech_writing.html

Acid Rain :: essays research papers fc

Acid fall is a very big pollution problem in the world. It has killed fish and opposite aquatic life in many lakes and streams. It harms human health, disfigures monuments and erodes buildings, and, along with other(a) pollutants, threatens forests. The story of acid rainwater can be compared to the plot of a science fiction movie. In the 1950s an invisible force begins to pulverize lakes and rivers, killing trout and salmon. By the 1960s it is harming the waters of eastern Canada and the northeastern linked States. High-altitude forests are beginning to fade away. City statues are gradually eaten away. The show from the damage of the aliens is starting to appear all over. Just as in science fiction movies, the authorities refuse to warn the alarmed citizens. Also, at the last moment the scientists figure away to destroy the aliens. Unfortunately, fiction and circumstance falls apart at this point. There is no quick recreate that will wipe out acid rain completely. (Pringle 1-2)Coal was the briny fuel of many industries in the early nineteenth century. Coal contains atomic number 16 and when burning it, it will produce sulfur dioxide. When in the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide whitethorn be converted to sulfuric acid (Pringle 8). Acid rain is lot across the world by communicate currents. When attempting to fix local air pollution problems, the solutions actually added to acid rain problems on other part of the world. High smoke stakes were developed to distribute pollutant acid-laden smoke higher(prenominal) in the atmosphere and spread it elsewhere (Merki 598). This was a quick recreate to a local problem, but harmed other parts of the world. Acid rain is a global problem because it more often than not, spreads over case borders instead of staying in a local spot. There are some(prenominal) causes of acidification, and various mechanisms by which it may occur. Acid rain falling on water bodies has a direct affect. In areas where craps are acidic, runoff from the soil transports acidic water, which may also contain aluminum, into lakes and rivers. Soil acidification may be caused by acid rain, but other factors may also be involved. For example, if pasture reverts to coniferous acidic runoff even though the rain itself is not acidic. Salty rain leaches acid components out of the soil and transports them to the rivers. (Rivers 1)The chemic content of acid rain is in itself dangerous to fish and other freshwater organisms.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Artist Pain Exposed in Kafkas A Hunger Artist Essay -- Hunger Artist

creative person spite open(a) in Kafkas A Hunger operative In A Hunger creative person, Kafka comments on the life of the current artisan through and through the life of a crave workman. Kafka comments that the modern artist is ceaselessly dissatisfy with his or her art. The modern artist also is trap in a stinging and capricious reality, in which the artist battles to defy his or her listening by pushing the extreme, but are cheated because they do not suffer his or her recognition. Finally, in A Hunger Artist Kafka refers to the modern artists struggle between the need for fame and the need for isolation. As a modern artist, Kafka has go through the qualities that characterize the modern artist and his experiences have greatly influenced his work, particularly A Hunger Artist. The modern artist, as seen with the hunger artist, will always have dissatisfaction with his or her art. The hunger artist was dissatisfy with his work because he was displease with hi mself. He was dissatisfied because speedying was late for him. Although he reveled to the world his secret, the world did not understand him and some nevertheless had the imprudence to call him a cheat. The hunger artist was also dissatisfied because he wanted to fast for more than forty days, but the impresario refused. tyro Frederick Karl remarks that the hunger artist could only find satisfaction when he achieves refining the closer he comes to the fine line when life and death touch.ii Kafka, a modern artist, was dissatisfied with his works. He attempted to achieve purification and faultlession through a strict diet and lifestyle, but he failed to imbibe his writings perfect and demanded that his works be burned after he died.iiii According to Kafka,... ...position in society. The modern artist is an outsider, or rather, a frivolity that happened to be in fashion. The artist is doomed to rejection and isolation by a harsh and capricious world. End Notes i Karl, Fred erick. Franz Kafka exercise Man. freshly York Fromm transnational publish Corporation, 1991. ii Updike, John. Foreword to Franz Kafka The Complete Stories. New York Schoken Books, 1971. triplet Winkler, R.O.C.. Twentieth vitamin C Literary Criticism Vol. 2. New York Gale Research, 1981 iv Karl, Frederick. Franz Kafka Representative Man. New York Fromm internationalist Publishing Corporation, 1991. v Karl, Frederick. Franz Kafka Representative Man. New York Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1991. vi Karl, Frederick. Franz Kafka Representative Man. New York Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1991. Artist Pain Exposed in Kafkas A Hunger Artist Essay -- Hunger ArtistArtist Pain Exposed in Kafkas A Hunger Artist In A Hunger Artist, Kafka comments on the life of the modern artist through the life of a hunger artist. Kafka comments that the modern artist is always dissatisfied with his or her art. The modern artist also is trapped in a harsh an d capricious world, in which the artist struggles to maintain his or her audience by pushing the extreme, but are cheated because they do not receive his or her recognition. Finally, in A Hunger Artist Kafka refers to the modern artists struggle between the need for fame and the need for isolation. As a modern artist, Kafka has experienced the qualities that characterize the modern artist and his experiences have greatly influenced his work, particularly A Hunger Artist. The modern artist, as seen with the hunger artist, will always have dissatisfaction with his or her art. The hunger artist was dissatisfied with his work because he was dissatisfied with himself. He was dissatisfied because fasting was easy for him. Although he reveled to the world his secret, the world did not understand him and some even had the imprudence to call him a cheat. The hunger artist was also dissatisfied because he wanted to fast for more than forty days, but the impresario refused. Critic Frederick Karl remarks that the hunger artist could only find satisfaction when he achieves purification the closer he comes to the fine line when life and death touch.ii Kafka, a modern artist, was dissatisfied with his works. He attempted to achieve purification and saint through a strict diet and lifestyle, but he failed to make his writings perfect and demanded that his works be burned after he died.iiii According to Kafka,... ...position in society. The modern artist is an outsider, or rather, a joke that happened to be in fashion. The artist is doomed to rejection and isolation by a harsh and capricious world. End Notes i Karl, Frederick. Franz Kafka Representative Man. New York Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1991. ii Updike, John. Foreword to Franz Kafka The Complete Stories. New York Schoken Books, 1971. iii Winkler, R.O.C.. Twentieth Century Literary Criticism Vol. 2. New York Gale Research, 1981 iv Karl, Frederick. Franz Kafka Representative Man. New York Fromm In ternational Publishing Corporation, 1991. v Karl, Frederick. Franz Kafka Representative Man. New York Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1991. vi Karl, Frederick. Franz Kafka Representative Man. New York Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1991.

My Short Story Essay -- essays research papers

semiprivate 062PRESENT SIR sequestered Robert replied.Private 063PRESENT SIR Private Wallace shouted. insure Sergeant Olsen was taking attendance at the Base tent Zan. He was in charge of a platoon of eighty Privates, fresh from the enrol Camp. Soon, he had accounted for all his soldiers. Coming fresh from the mainland with no knowledge of the army, no(prenominal) of his soldiers could outdo him. Or so he thoughtTime for your niggling morning strait, PrivatesYES SIRThe privates started on their short morning walk which turned out to be twenty kilometres long. Delta, one of the privates, was the first to shoemakers last the run with an astonishing timing of one and a quarter of an instant beating the Master Sergeant by five full minutes. Master Sergeant was infuriated.Private 019 Meet me at 0645HoursHmm... Corporal Nelson looked through Private Deltas particulars.Go, run on that running analysis machine at that place He pointed on the steel metallic structure occupying only a small area in the room.Delta walked to the machine and started running. Indeed he ran at an unbelievable speed. But that awesome speed was short-lived. It lasted only two minutes. directly Corporal Nelson was getting interested in Deltas talents. He send Delta for a health check and at the same time, promptly displace a proposal to Prof Daniel Frank.Prof Daniel Frank is a scientist. He had just invented something named as the LSSE (Light-weight Self-Sustaining Energy) suit. The...