Thursday, November 28, 2019
The Development Of Mass Tourism Mallorca Tourism Essay Essay Balearic Islands with entire country of 5,014 kilometers consist of four islands which are 2 by Formentera, 11 by Eivissa, 14 by Menorca and 73 by Mallorca ( Bull 1997, 140 ) . Mallorca is the largest island of the Balearic archipelago with 555km of the entire seashore length of the island ( Garcia and Servera 2003, 288 ) which covered for about three quarters of the land with about 3640 kmA? in Balearic Island. The clime of Mallorca is typically Mediterranean with moderate mean temperatures. During the summer, the prohibitionist and warm season takes topographic point. The mean one-year rainfalls are 625 millimeters, with mean temperature 16AÃ °C and 17AÃ °C except in the high mountain ( Guijarro 1986 ) . With its favourable clime, extended coastline and beautiful beaches it have lured visitants coming over for many centuries. In 1950s the development of touristry progressively creates an chance to the local in bring forthing extra occupations and income. On the other side it has resulted in a big flux of immigrants from Iberian Peninsula to Mallorca. At the same clip when the touristry industry developed, the local economic system became dependent on this beginning of gross. Consequently, in 1955 there is 30 of the population was working for the sector nevertheless in 1996 it was about 76 ( Garcia and Servera 2003, 288 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on The Development Of Mass Tourism Mallorca Tourism Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Development Of Mass Tourism Mallorca Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Development Of Mass Tourism Mallorca Tourism Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The development of Mass Tourism ( Mallorca ) Definition of Mass touristry Burkart and Medlik ( 1974, 42 ) states Mass touristry is basically a quantitative impression, based on the proportion of the population take parting in touristry or on the volume of tourer activity . However, in the context of Bramwell ( 2004 ) associate it to tourism industry s large-scale reproduction of standardised vacation bundles uniting adjustment and conveyance to provide big Numberss of people from diverse societal groups. Basically both definitions have pointed out the cardinal component of mass touristry that is all about big volume and big graduated table of reproduction production with local engagement engagement to provide huge Numberss of visitants. Since 1950s touristry in Mallorca has closely aligned with a standard mass vacation bundle aimed at a really price-sensitive of European tourer ( Aguilo et al. 2005, 221 ) . Having such characteristic of the clime, Sun and beach is absolutely match with the mass tourer who in hunt of hot conditions and sunburn within the model of a stiffly packaged vacation. Butler s life rhythm of Mallorca Exploration A ; involvement stage-1930s The pantryman s lifecycle theoretical account ( 1980 ) , describes a tourer finish from the geographic expedition to development up to stagnancy and diminution stages can be best apply in the finish of Mallorca from the growing phase to post-stagnation phase. In the period of geographic expedition and engagement phases tourism takes topographic point in Mallorca act simply as an instrument for exciting cultural and rational activity ( Bull 1997, 141 ) . Early on development phase 1955s When it comes to 1955 Mallorca Island is in development phase where mass touristry started to turn during that period. There was a re-establishment of the tourer board that have significantly change the touristry on the island whereby the touristry become more really much linked with the development of bundle vacations and mass touristry from the turning markets in western and northern Europe ( Pearce 1991 and Williams 1997 ) . However in 1959, Spanish authorities took the novice to simplify the process of sing the state in order to overhaul the economic system by deriving abroad gross through ( Stabilisation Act of 1959 ) . The Numberss of visitants started to growing invariably in early 1960s, bulk of the visitants were dominated from UK and Germany in big volumes concentrated particularly during summer season ( Clark 1988 ) ( Figure 1 ) . Consolidation stage-1980s-1990s Between 1960s-1980s the effects from the roar of international touristry to Mallorca, it led to an increasing resort development along the coastline. Most of the island began from the rapid growing of cheap bundle vacations in the sixtiess. However in the late of 1970s, many edifices, resorts and flats were built in order to provide big Numberss of visitants and turning figure of the populations. Majority of these early resorts were portrayed by standard flat edifice architecture, short of appropriate substructure and deficiency of planning, which lead to the consolidation phases. Buswell ( 1996, 321 ) described the growing of tourer declaration on Mallorca as unplanned and piecemeal, even helter-skelter . Later, stricter planning Torahs was set up in 1980s and 1990s against the job that arisen. Subsequently Mallorca managed to keep its good repute with tourers, peculiarly from UK and Germany furthermore invariably attracts about 10 thousand visitants per twelvemonth ( Buswell 1996 and Government Balear 2003 ) Stagnation and Decline stage-1990s-2000s In late 1990s, environmental force per unit areas begin to emerge in Mallorca sing to the issue such as H2O deficits, clime alteration, overcrowding, and over commercialisation every bit good as anti-social behaviour by its visitants. This finally causes an overall of diminution in figure of visitants arrive to its finish. In commissariats of finish life rhythm kineticss, the touristry merchandise of Mallorca was get downing to stagnate and decline and needed direction planning and policy intercession to convey about its rejuvenation ( Butler, 1980 ) . Development of Mass touristry in Calvia, Mallorca Calvia is a municipality of Mallorca which is besides one of the largest touristry having countries. It accounted about one tierce of the entire flow of tourers to Balearic Islands. It covers 145 kmA? and has a coastal strip of 56 Km of beaches and drops which caused it perfectly suited finish for mass touristry. It offers adjustment for 120,000 bedspaces and with about up to 1.6 million visitants a twelvemonth ( Aguilo, Algere and Sard, 2005 ) . Furthermore, with its location in bantam distance from the airdrome of Palma creates an easy accessible to the visitants. The population of the occupant increased from 3000 in dwellers during 1960 up to 30,000 in the late 1890ss ( Dodds 2007 ) . Since 19th century, touristry began to be as chief economic activity of its island ( Ministerio de Economia y Hacienda, 2005 ) . Tourism development in Calvia boomed in the sixtiess and has been based on short-run economic addition. As Aguilo et Al. ( 2005 ) provinces, it was one of the first municipalities to see negative effects of mass touristry. Lack of be aftering ordinances resulted in urban conurbation and deficiency of environmental respect, similar to many Mediterranean resorts. The theoretical account of touristry development in Mallorca has been based on short-run involvement, limitless constructing out of melody with local conditions, and an unsustainable development of exceeding natural resources . Tourist development took topographic point in 1960s to 1980s and was headlong and unplanned. Economy In economic point of position, touristry is of import as it create occupation chances, substructure development every bit good as foreign exchange. The unemployment rate is much lower than national norm ( Ministerio de Trabajo 2005 ) as there are about 31,793 people employed in restaurant-bars, 2057 involved in transit lease, 483 in supermarkets, 398 people employed in souvenir stores and with 1,684 plants in other tourer installations. Meanwhile 1,402 involved in beach concern and 18,003 are involved in supplying tourer activities. In Calvia it was estimated about 61749 vacancies in footings of supplying tourer activities ( Molz 2004 ) . It has 30 higher income per capital of national and 5 higher of E.U. degrees ( Ministerio de Economia y Hacienda 2005 ) . Looking at these figures it becomes perfectly obvious 85 of Balearic Island s GNP is from tourer industry, and touristry is the chief beginning of income for the metropolis of Calvia whereby economic system is wholly reliant upon it. From the statistics Numberss given, it can be conclude that there is high figure of labour force fall ining the labor market, the tourer monoculture particularly during the peak seasonal form, labor with a low wage system, and force per unit area of work during high season ( Local Agenda 21 2001 ) . Socio civilization impact While touristry provides certain economic benefits to a part in any instance in the short term, nevertheless it does causes annoyance to the local manner of life. To the locals the concerns may deduce due to the unrealized promises, break of a traditional manner of life, inadequacy of employment chances or defeat with the economic alterations which came with mass touristry development. Before touristry takes topographic point, Calvia was basically a hapless and rural country with small outside contact and general history of out-migration with its ain linguistic communication and civilization of Catalan roots ( Ruzza 2004 ) . However touristry has entirely altered these characteristics ; a huge figure of in-migration from the Spanish peninsula arrived to carry through the demand for labour created by the growing of mass touristry, peculiarly in the edifice industry and the hotel concern. Consequent to that the impermanent immigrant population, has bit by bit turn into occupant, finally this causes the loss of cultural individuality, struggle over linguistic communication issues, and deficiency of societal integrating within local and immigrant population and bantam engagement in local societal life. Although Calvia is Spain s richest municipality and one of the richest in Europe, it has the lowest degree of instruction in Spain which itself the lowest in Europe ( Ayuntament de Calvia 1995 ) . Besides, most of employments given for servers and house cleansing agent which did non trained by a professional skilled. Consequences of excessively many visitants Reason tourer choose Calvia as vacation finish The continuity of the Sun and sand theoretical account ( 2005, 222 ) , describes that the ground induces tourers to take the peculiar Sun and sand finish include the clime of 76.2, the beaches ( 51.2 ) , the monetary value ( 36.4 ) , and the quality of the hotels ( 22.2 ) . Among all, clime is the cardinal ground followed by the beaches which induces tourers for taking such finish. As a consequence Calvia received a turning figure of visitants who travel to a mass touristry vacation finish attracted by the clime, Sun and beaches. Calvia were seen as a theoretical account based on value, in footings of monetary value competition it has lure many visitants particularly from UK and German with it standardisation of the vacation experience ( CIITIB, 2002 ) . Social impact For the local point of position, visitants seem to use the physical environment from the local nevertheless the net income that generated from the visitants are non portion with the local community. Thus it creates unwanted impacts on supports without sharing benefits with the local people who bear the cost of both human and natural environment. Finally conflicts arise among local populations with huge figure of visitants as they need to vie for limited usage of resources such as H2O, sanitation, energy and land utilizations. In point of tourer position it is often recapitulate with the statements with this used to be a Eden but now it is ruined because of overcrowding, over commercialisation or overdevelopment. The mass touristry cohesiveness and the assortment of jobs experienced in Calvia have excessively frequently formed blemish aboard beautiful natural scenery ; crowded with huge Numberss of tourers as if they were many cowss ; ruined traditional civilizations and occupational forms by making a insidious touristry industry portrayed as low paying occupations service and manipulative values ; without refering the demands of local citizens and the community values that were inconsistent with matter-of-fact economic demands of the touristry industry. Environmental impact The risen Numberss of visitants and occupants have huge environmental force per unit area in Calvia . As mentioned in pantryman s life rhythm, Mallorca was in the period of stagnation in 1990s may put on the line by lifting of environmental force per unit area chiefly due to H2O deficits and climatic alteration. Inadequate H2O supply The issue of unequal H2O supply particularly during peak period and summer season, H2O supplies is aggravated by visitants flows for usage in hotels, swimming pools and golf class. Harmonizing to the statistic documented in 1995, the H2O ingestion by visitants amounted of 160 litres per twenty-four hours whereby occupant is merely 130 litres. High demand in energy ingestion The one-year ingestion of primary energy in Calvia sum to 72,000 TEP per twelvemonth of which merely 2 is renewable. However, the ingestion per twenty-four hours was 6.47 kwh and visitants stay one dark in hotel the ingestion amounted to 2.14 kwh ( Dodds 2007 ) . Pollution by Conveyances Of 1,400,000 tones emanation of C dioxide, 58 is due to transporting tourer in and out of Mallorca. In Calvia 1995 statistic, visitants are the major causes of traffic congestion where of 70 million journeys 50 million were from visitants. Urban waste In 1995 Calvia produced 41000 dozenss of urban waste with approximately 1.25 kilograms per twenty-four hours by the occupant nevertheless 1kg per visitants a twenty-four hours. Furthermore there is a limited option for disposal. The production of effluent and solid waste in visitant countries frequently surpass the transporting capacity of local substructure due the high seasonal demand. Deterioration of the Land usage Building development in Calvia has been inordinate with aggregate business of flaxen beaches and of import enclaves along the bouldery coastline ( Pappas 2007 ) . With over 60 of Calvia part was caused by dirt eroding. However land country was cut downing drastically because of urbanisation. Furthermore, as a consequence of urbanisation, preies and waste mopess were increasing. Forest fires besides sparked farther devastation of the land. Harmonizing to an accounting of the distribution of the full country of Calvia made by Schmitt ( Molz 2004 ) in 1991 the build-up-area has quadrupled in the old ages from 1968 to 1991 ( +311.6 ) . However 57 of archeological heritage were at high hazard of impairment. Overcrowded beach About 80 of the analyzed instances show overcrowding despite an urban beach or natural beach. There is a strong seasonal concentration of visitants between June and September because of the demand for Sun and beaches. Subsequently this led to overcrowded beach with less than 6 mA? of beach surface per individual with increasing anthropogenetic force per unit area over the coastal zone ( Garcia and Jaume 2003, 287 ) . Solution Calvia is an illustration of a mass touristry finish which, from a consequence of touristry force per unit area in the late eightiess, faced important economic, societal and environmental diminution. As mentioned by Butler ( 1993 ) touristry is an activity because of its trust upon the care of natural environment and natural procedures, should impart itself toward sustainable development. Therefore, sustainable development must ever be touristry s chief aim. Without natural environment and natural procedures at that place would non be any touristry activity at all. In the instance of Calvia the lessening of touristry Numberss and Balearic Island as a whole goaded ordinances and attempts to travel towards turn toing the jobs of the debasement of the environment, impairment of societal systems and installations and the menace of farther touristry diminution. Definition of Planning and Policy Mass touristry is a cardinal issue in the planetary touristry industry, may it be in Mallorca or Brazil or Iceland. The word MASS entirely brings about one fright: mass-destruction. Without careful touristry planning, it brings about unobserved effects that can do touristry destructing touristry go a world and incubus. By looking at the definition of planning is highly equivocal and hard to specify. Chadwick ( 1971, 24 ) provinces that planning is a procedure of human idea with an action based upon the thought in point of fact, premeditation, thought for the hereafter, nil more or less than this is be aftering . Meanwhile Hall ( 2008, 90 ) supported Chadwick s thoughts to reason that most of import facet of planning is that it is directed towards the hereafter . However, be aftering can non be accomplished without policy because it is closely related footings. Wilkinson ( 1997 ) linked planning and policy by saying planning is a class of action, whereas policy is the execution of the planned class of action. Planing and policy in the instance of Calvia Calvia Plan for tourer Excellent 1990 The program was developed in 1990 as to aim the menace of diminution. It comes along with the Balearic Autonomous community in cooperation with the municipalities as to overhaul, better and diversify the touristry. This program included edifice clearance to recover unfastened infinite, seek to compensate the seasonal nature of touristry and preparation and employment. However this program is chiefly focused on the industry supply side alternatively of sustainability of the finish and host community did non affect at all. As a consequence, it did non try to get the better of the turning issues that have arisen. Calvia Local Agenda 21 ( LA21 ) 1995 At the terminal of 1994, the Town council of Calvia , together with a scope of working groups, drew up the Local Agenda 21 for Calvia as a long term schemes integrated with economic, societal, territorial and environment actions. In explicating LA21 in 1995 and Action Plan in 1997, the Municipality of Calvia actively involved the support of local community, all the stakeholders, NGO every bit good as national and EU authoritiess. The cardinal aims for LA21 Calvia concentrating on come ining a new manner of life based on sustainable and participatory urban and touristry planning ; stress environmental direction of the finish, expression for for understanding and consensus with societal representatives, control development and act for more stable employment in the country. ( Calvia Agenda Local 21, Mallorca, Spain 2004 ) . In 1998 New Balearic Law in Calvia was set out as to restrict adjustment growing, reconstruct bing hotels and to protect 40 of natural countries. The aims of the LA21 comprises of 10 strategic lines of action and 40 enterprises. Cardinal consequences that have been achieved since the execution of Calvia s 1997 program The LA21 Action Plan which were set out in 1997 were seems to hold betterment in a general motion toward sustainability within the part and as Calvia is reasonably independent, it was able to follow and implement many enterprises without the demand for coaction from higher authorities. Among those cardinal consequences that have been achieved since the execution of the LA21 action program are stated below: Planing and Regeneration Decline of 200 bed without rise in figure of hotels and flats 1993-2002-about 30 edifice clearance program actions including existent edifice destruction and purchase of urban secret plans as to forestall farther building were carried out Demolished edifices on more than 13,500mA? of the entire surface country Upgraded country in Magaluf A ; Palma Nova tourer country with prosaic zones and seting tree as to better quality of the country. In Paseo de Calvia 32 kilometer cycling and walking way was built Environmental instruments Tax was enforcing on H2O ingestion for preservation with awareness runs on advancing its usage. The recycling A ; urban waste decrease programs successfully separated 70 of the urban waste at beginning, helping by cut downing cost of recycling attempt, minimising land fill. Sea dredging which used to bring forth beaches has been terminated while steps on environmental friendly were put in topographic point to minimise eroding. New ordinance for restricting ground tackle harm A ; harbor congestion cause by boats Protect wild life A ; ecosystems with the constitution of Marine Park A ; tellurian protected countries. Economic instruments Enforce an eco-tax in 2002 by Balearic Government as to transport out Calvia council rehabilitation and regenerative undertakings. Voluntary instruments Renovation programmes for hotels, tourer adjustment and tourer installations established to upgrade quality and pull a higher output tourer Socio cultural instruments Programs to battle offense, lodging and other societal issues Multi-cultural and societal programmes such as dance, submerged picture taking and linguistic communication categories established to assist incorporate immigrants into Mallorquin civilization. Calvia has been recognized internationally for its attempts decision Calvia 2.0 The development of mass touristry in Calvia, Mallorca. 2.1 Definition of Mass Tourism
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Watching horror movies Essay Research Paper Example Watching horror movies Essay Paper Watching horror movies Essay Paper Horror film as the name suggest. watching such a film. which will dismay you so much that it will raise your hair and feel you so scared that you will experience afraid to kip entirely tonight. A horror film depicts gross outing faces to frighten people. An agreement of such sort is form at assorted points in the film. that a individual feel so amazed and so excited that fright enter his/her head and psyche. Through horror films. an effort is made to live over the worst incubus of the common people in such a existent manner that every spectator feels himself or herself involved in the film. Some common characteristics of the horror films are shouting. hurting. running and fast breathe. Watching horror films ; a portion of human nature to bask chilling feeling: Some people love to watch horror films. Others wish to see horror film but are scared to watch it at dark. Actually itÃ¢â¬â¢s the nature of every human being to experience assortment or convey alteration in life. Some takes bold stairss and makes it go on. While other attempts to look weather but are coward from inside to do efforts to convey alteration in life. WRITER. 2. Horror films are merely like an effort to assist a human being feel that assortment alteration in life. And that feeling is called acquiring scared. In the modern twenty-four hours life when every thing is so controlled and safe to utilize and populate about. It becomes hard for us to experience panic of anything. Actually the whole narrative starts from the yesteryear when worlds used to populate in forest. they use to run and many a times get wounded during their Hunt. That panic in the head of homo is still alive and in some people itÃ¢â¬â¢s overpowering. Some animate beings like Lion. tiger. wolf and others still donÃ¢â¬â¢t like their nutrient to be thrown at them when they are behind Fe bars. They get lazy. bored and even unhealthy without runing for their nutrient. Similarly worlds besides like to experience frightened. of class non to the extent of runing for nutrient. but genuinely for enjoyment intent merely. Due to this ground merely some dare people go for bungee jumping. falling from the skies or plunging in the ocean. While others who have a limited or low push of acquiring a chilling feeling travel for assorted drives at wonderland Parkss. And eventually for those who can barely take that chilling feeling goes for watching a chilling film. Therefore watching horror film helps a individual to bask his/her push for acquiring scared. WRITER. 3. Benefits of watching a horror to different people. otherwise: A figure of benefits can be tracked down every bit following to calculate out why people truly watch horror films. 1. To convey assortment in life and enjoyment: Peoples who are tired of their day-to-day busy agendas watch horror films to gustatory sensation and bask the feeling of being acquiring scared. This helps them to catch their deadening day-to-day agenda and believe on an issue other than their office work and household tenseness. That issue may be life and decease. bad and good. true and lies etc. 2. Addition religion in God: As about all the horror films has the same subject of godÃ¢â¬â¢s indomitability over Satan. Therefore some people watch horror films to corroborate and increase their religion in God. Their belief that even if the power of evil additions manifolds. our last resort and that is god is ever at that place to command and get the better of immorality and protect us from the agonies that may go on due to SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s misbehaviors. WRITER. 4. 3. To corroborate their belief that offense wages: Many of horror films are based on the wickedness or offense committed by some individual. That offense may consequences in agitation of psyche of the dead and that in return that peculiar psyche takes retaliation and makes that individual wages for his/her wickedness or offense. Thus the lesson of the narrative in many horror films is that offense wages. And this is what we are told from our birth and this is what we want to corroborate once more and once more by watching horror films. 4. Wishing about acquiring scared of darkness and cryptic topographic points: Many of the people who are already scared of darkness and cryptic topographic points easy believe in the narrative of the horror films. When a horror film takes scene in darkness at cryptic topographic points like old palace. dark forest etc. so it is really easy for some people to fell in quarry of panic through this film and this confirms their panic for darkness and cryptic topographic points. 5. To corroborate the misperception about gross outing faces: Finally when we see some people with non so good or may we state gross outing faces. so we believe that individual may be evil and he/she possesses supernatural powers to ache others. This may happen in existent life due to some hormonal job. WRITER. 5. For case. some people have hair on their face. some have six fingers in their manus. or even some people have big pess. All these brings bad ideas in the head of a common adult male and by watching horror films that bad thought additions strength and we start believing in such stereotypes believing. Decision: In the terminal. people watch horror films. to convey assortment in life and enjoyment. to increase religion in God and to corroborate their belief that offense wages. Not merely that people like acquiring scared of darkness and cryptic and eventually to corroborate their misperceptions about gross outing faces and its ownership of supernatural powers. Mentions: 1 ) Understanding the Popular Appeal of Horror Cinema: An Integrated-Interactive Model. Online publication day of the month: May 13. 2004. Journal of Media Psychology. Volume 9. No. 2. Spring. 2004 by Glenn D. Walters. Ph. D. . Federal Correctional Institution. Schuylkill. Pennsylvania. 2 ) Why Do Peoples Love Horror Movies? They Enjoy Bing Scared. ScienceDaily ( July 31. 2007 ) 3 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //healthinfo. slimsdaily. info/ ? p=7 4 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www. queendom. com/advices/advice. htm? advice=482 5 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2007/07/070725152040. htm
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Different Paths to God Found in Bonaventure's The Soul's (or Mind's) Journey to God - Term Paper Example The path detailed in The SoulÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey to God is a path to ecstasy, to truly knowing the Creator. Bonaventure describes this path as, Ã¢â¬Å"the road by which this rapture is reachedÃ¢â¬ (54). This is a path that no believer can pass through alone. It is only through Christ that we can attain ecstasy. Ã¢â¬Å"There is no other path but through the burning love of the CrucifiedÃ¢â¬ (54). So one must both desire to be close to God, have faith and love, and also realize that you cannot do it yourself. You must have the help of Christ to attain your goal. We attain the first degree through Ã¢â¬Å"an outcry of prayerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the flash of insightÃ¢â¬ (55). Both of these must come through Christ. Bonaventure issues an invitation: Ã¢â¬Å"I invite the reader to the groans of prayer through Christ crucified.Ã¢â¬ But the first step is purification of the spirit. Bonaventure admonishes that you must first exercise your conscience and experience remorse. But again, on e must begin with Christ. Ã¢â¬Å"We cannot rise above ourselves unless a Higher Power lifts us upÃ¢â¬ (59). This process involves a three-prong process, which according to Bonaventure, mirrors the three days in the wilderness described in Exodus. He also compares it to the three periods of light in a day: evening, morning, and noon. He also relates it to the threefold essence of Christ. This three-prong process begins with the material. The second prong is about the spirit. And the third prong is the mind. These are much like the three essences of God, which are material, temporal, and exterior. In order to know God, you must pass through his essences. Since God had a literal Hand in creating all things in the physical world, you can find Him in all physical things. Therefore, all physical things on the Earth can point you toward God. Thus, the three-prongs of understanding and readying yourself for an encounter with God begin with the material, move toward the spirit, and then l astly through the mind. Bonaventure explains that any of these prongs can be doubled, which is why he has broken the process into six steps. Bonaventure explains the correlation to the creation of the universe. God took six days to create the world and then took the seventh day to rest. Our world is a minute version. As Bonaventure explains, Ã¢â¬Å"so the smaller world of man is led in a most orderly fashion by six successive stages of illumination to the quiet of contemplationÃ¢â¬ (61). This also corresponds to the six stages of the powers of the soul. Bonaventure explains that we ascend through these stages: Ã¢â¬Å"sense, imagination, reason, understanding, intelligence, and the summit of the mindÃ¢â¬ ¦we have these implanted in us by nature, deformed by sin, and reformed by grace. They must be cleansed by justiceÃ¢â¬ (62). Returning to this quiet of contemplation is akin to returning to our original state of being. We were created as perfect for the quiet of contemplation. However, when Adam and Eve turned away from their original intention, mankind was also turned from our perfect state of being, designed for the quiet of contemplation. Our next phase after examining the material is to look into our spirit and see where we can find God. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s image is not only spiritual, but everlasting. We must see how our interior reflects God, who created us all. Bonaventure uses the metaphor of a mirror. You are both looking for God in a mirror and through a mirror. Bonaventure explains that ascendancy to God requires the avoidance of sin, Ã¢â¬Å"
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Parkinson's disease - Essay Example Damaging approximately 60% to 80% of the cells producing dopamine would cause its deficiency and consequently lead to the appearance of PD motor symptoms. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS (2013) refers to this brain cells impairment process as neurodegeneration. Prevalence and Incidence About 1 million people in the US suffer from PD with between 50,000 to 60,000 new cases being diagnosed annually. Worldwide, between 4 million and 6 million people suffer from PD (National Parkinson Foundation, 2013). It has been particularly noted to set in at age 50 to 65 with a lower incidence in African Americans as compared to the Caucasians and 3:2 for male to female ratio incidence (Talan, 2011). Motor Manifestation Years before the motor manifestation, people with PD experience non-motor symptoms including sleep disorders, loss of smell, hyposmia and constipation. The BraakÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis cited by the NPF (2013) observes its earliest signs in the medulla, particularly the olfactory bulb which controls the sense of smell. It would then gradually progress to the cortex and substantia. Notwithstanding, the four motor symptoms cited by NFP (2013) are cardinal in PD: postural instability, slowness of movement, rigidity and tremor. The well-known symptom of tremor has been referred to as rest tremor by NINDS (2013) as it becomes maximal on rested limbs and disappears with sleep or voluntary movement. It begins with a single leg or arm and later becomes bilateral. The tremors have a frequency of between 4 and 6 Hz. Secondly, the slowness of movement referred to as bradykinesia by NFP (2013) relates to difficulties in the whole movement process: planning, initiation and execution. This early manifestation hinders simultaneous and sequential movement performance indicated by problems related with performance of fine motor controlled tasks like sewing, writing and dressing up. The magnitude would be determined by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional state or activity. Rigidity would be manifested by stiffness of the limb and resistance to movement due to excessive continuous muscle contraction or muscle tone. This could be uniform or ratchet referred to as lead-pipe and cogwheel rigidity respectively. It could be accompanied by pain. Whereas in the early stages it affects the shoulder and neck muscles, it later progresses to the whole body. Finally, the late stages of the disease exhibits impaired balance causing frequent falls and bone fractures due to postural instability. It would be experienced by 40% of the patients. Talan (2011) adds posture and gait disturbances like festination to the list of these motor manifestations. Diagnosis and Detection Initial diagnosis requires the identification of at least two of these four motor manifestations (NPF, 2013). Bedside examination by a neurologist remains the most basic diagnostic tool for suspect patients. To aid this diagnosis, emergent imaging modalities including PET and DAT scans would be performed by a neuroimaging expert with DATscan playing a critical role of differentiating PD from other essential tremors but cannot indicate the PD subtype. Also to aid in accurate diagnosis would be the need for information on physical and medical examination and also medication history to ascertain the absence of medication that causes symptoms similar to those of PD. The
Monday, November 18, 2019
Personal Ethics - Essay Example In addition, she worked to assure that patients under her care were healthy. Her critical thinking of Environmental Theory dramatically revolutionized the nursing methodology in which sanitary conditions for patience became a focal point for all nurses. As a nurse, it is imperative to provide the utmost care to patients especially in the realm of elderly. As a nurse, one must understand that not nurturing elders can be against the moral standards of a nurse. Elderly neglect is one of the most prominent issues that needs to be addressed in modern society. It is clear that every year, an estimated 4 million older Americans are victims of neglect. Elderly neglect has been an issue not only in nursing houses but also in other aspects. Conducive research indicates that for every case of elder abuse and neglect reported to authorities, experts estimate as many as 23 cases go undetected. The quality of life of older individuals who experience abuse is a critical element because elderly often feel neglected which may cause physiological trauma that is definitely not healthy. This physical trauma can be a huge element as much research also suggests that older people who have been abused tend to die earlier, which is a huge concern. For the elderly, it highly imperative that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t experience this short of emotional trauma in their later years. From my personal perspective, nursing are majority in charge of handling patientÃ¢â¬â¢s nutritional status. Most patients that are sick tend to lose weight and must be supplemented with proper amount of food and nutrients. Conducive research indicates that as many as 65% of elderly patients are malnourished when they enter the hospital while in the hospital. Without having the proper nutritional assessment, it is highly illogical and difficult to monitor their status. Morally, they must have the right to
Friday, November 15, 2019
The use of innovative marketing and product concepts Innovative marketing and product concepts made OSIM International Ltd a leader in the industry of Home Health-care products. Franchise agreements among most of the cross border operations are implemented to ensure capitalization of local marketing expertise and practices of the franchisees. OSIM International Ltd are now employing expressive marketing and distribution system which enables the management to analyze customer needs and preferences both on the regional and local market bases and customize product designs to exceed customer expectations and also in order to address the company weakness. Despite of this effort of the company, the current financial situation of the company is quite unusual, thus a need for financial situational analysis is a must. For most businesses today, the progress and development they created are recorded as basis of their success. These records also serve as essential thing in making decision in business and of course as a benchmark for measuring the firms performance for the period under scrutiny (Ali, A 1993 and Pike, R Neale, B 1999). A financial situation analysis is one such gauge that documents current and future financial situation in an attempt to determine a financial strategy to help achieve organisational goals. Objectives The objective of this paper of evaluates and analyses the business performance of OSIM by reviewing the financial information for the past 3 years. Actually, it attempts to examine the financial statements of the company by using tools such as Ratio Analysis and also to see what might be the other factors that can influence the companys growth and its decision making and than to see the limitations of the financial analysis. These performance indicators are better known as ratios and constitute the main tools of conventional financial analysis. This serves as a proof that more and more organisations are realising the importance the analysis of their financial situation in order to keep up with the demands of the business world. Basically, this paper will be discussing the financial status of OSIM holdings Ltd. in accordance to their financial ratios in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Corporate Profile of OSIM OSIM International Ltd was believed a global leader in healthy lifestyle products. The company was originally founded by Ron Sim in Singapore in 1980. During that time OSIM was under the name of R Sim Trading, an electrical and household appliance company. Using their small start-up capital, the company engages with the promotion of household products such as knife sharpeners, knife and mobile clothes drying rods. Apparently, in 1989, the company listed with the name Health Check and Care, and later on shifted their main focus to healthy lifestyle products. The time following this created great development for the company, and it manages to produce outlets in Indonesia and Malaysia. In 1993, the company officially introduced the OSIM brand name and its distribution network grown up to 60 point-of-sale outlets in Asia. By the year 2002, OSIM formed its global business headquarters in Singapore at 65 Ubi Avenue 1. The Business Headquarters Status (BHQ) was awarded to OSIM by The Economic Development Board. In 1993, the company opened its first concept shop in Shanghai, in the Peoples Republic of China. Currently, OSIM operates about 1,100 outlets in more 30 countries worldwide. Current/Future Trends Figure 1. 2007 to 2009 Business Performance of OSIM Source: www.ft.com As seen in figure 1, the performance of OSIM is at its peak in the 2nd quarter of 2007. But suffers from continues decline in year 2008 up to the 1st quarter of 2009 due the global recession experienced not only by OSIM but of most businesses around the globe. Despite of the recession, OSIM still devices some strategy that will enhance their business performance. As seen in the presentation, there is also a slight revival of business performance in 2009 and it seems that this trend will continue up to the end of 2010. As recorded in ft.com, OSIM International Ltd (O23:SES) set a new 52-week high during todays trading session when it reached 0.615. Over this period, the share price is up 692.04%. Over the last week OSIM International Ltd (O23:SES) outperformed the Straits Times index.. Competitors As indicated in the company report of OSIM, their primary markets are located in Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan and currently no company poses a significant threat to them as a major competitor (Osim International Ltd. 2009). The company believed that they have the have a competitive edge over their competitors in their primary markets as their extensive distribution network of outlets is dedicated to home health-care products. As part of the business development of the company, they currently exercise the full control over their point-of-sales network and dictate to their distribution chain how to sell and not only what to sell (Osim International Ltd. 2009). Furthermore, OSIM also control their supply chain, from the design of the products up to the distribution and marketing of the products. In general, the company considers Sanyo and Omron as their competitors. Actually, Sanyo is a major electronics company and member of the Fortune 500 whose headquarters is located in Moriguchi, Osaka prefecture, Japan. Sanyo targets the middle of the market and has over 324 offices and plants worldwide. On the other hand, Omron is an old company which was established in 1933 and incorporated in 1948 by Kazuma Tateishi. Similar to Sanyo, Omrons core expertise is the manufacture and sale of automation components, equipment and systems, but it is generally known for medical equipment such as digital thermometers, blood pressure monitors and nebulizers. As seen, these competitors are not directly targeting the market of OSIM which are mostly home health-care products. However, in response to the competitors and in order to handle competitive pressures from manufacturers of low-priced products in the PRC market, the company have developed NORO as a secondary brand to sell lower-priced massage chairs and kneading massagers to the segment of the consumer market which are more sensitive to pricing (Osim International Ltd. 2009). While the barriers to entry into the home health-care products industry are not exorbitant, new entrants may possibly face high start-up costs and needed to compete against established brands. New entrants may also be short of the knowledge of how to sell and where to sell. Thus, the company is convinced that in this industry, strategic marketing and branding are crucial. Furthermore, new entrants might find it more complicated to set up a distribution network. For example, owners of strategic departmental stores and suburban shopping malls usually prefer the more well-established names. In addition, the comparison of financial values can will be discussed in the next secrtion. Ratio Analysis Characteristically, financial measures as well as the affiliations employed in performance depth are designed to stress outcomes with least or no consideration of the decision processes of the manager. The usual or conventional way of performance was based on episodic profitability gauges without the concern to particular variables that drive these measures (Daroca Nourayi, 2002). Performance in the past is mainly based on conventional accounting and measures based on market performance. In particular, these measures include the evaluation on net income, return on equity/capital employed, earnings per share as well as share-price return. Some financial outrages have put corporate governance in the business spotlight. Basically, the issues and interest in the subject corporate finance can be traced back at least to the eighteenth century and economists such as Adam Smith. Certainly, there is probably little new in the existing debate involving to financial negligence, except for the range of the financial and economic consequences which replicate the greater importance of finance in the current economy. As stated previously, the aim of this presentation is to scrutinize the economic and financial context of corporate governance of a home health-care products company i.e. OSIM. It attempts to evaluate the past, current and future situation of this business in terms of the financial reports. Basically, corporate governance has significant impact for the performance of the financial sector and, by addition, the economy as whole. Well-organised resource allocation is supported by strapping shareholder control rights, which assists investment in fresh development actions and confines the scope for corporate over-investment. Actually, investment decisions are further correlated to corporate governance insofar as investors prefer to invest in suitably supervised businesses and be fitting to avoid investing in uncertain environments. In this manner, the investor assertion created by sound corporate governance stipulations and the security of marginal shareholders encourages the financial market progress by encouraging share ownership and capable capital allocation across firms. Transparent financial reporting is necessary to sending efficient corporate governance. For the last several years, the home health-care products industries in Singapore have seen the rapid growth of the number of firms offering financial situation analysis services. This serves as a proof that more and more organisations are realising the importance the analysis of their financial situation in order to keep up with the demands of the business world. Analysis of Information Profitability Ratios As seen in figure 1, the Osim International Ltds 2009 revenues grew revenues 4.40% from 456.66m to 476.77m. This along with an increase in selling, general and administrative costs has contributed to a reduction in net income from a gain of 99.44m to a gain of 23.33m. From the record for 2009, the company actually suffers from profit decline due to the effect of global recession. As seen, their 2007 performance is expressive compared in 2008 or even in 2009. From these results, we can deviate that OSIM was not performing well in 2009 and 2008 as compared to their expressive 2007. Despite of some downturns in 2008 and 2009 due to the global business crisis, the year 2010 shows interesting trend. From the gathered information, it is expected that in 2010 both the revenue and net income of OSIM will be constantly moving upward. Figure 2. Summary of Profitability Ratios (Prices are in SGD) OSIM Sanyo Omron Source: http://www.ft.com From the given situation and results of revenue and net income of OSIM, the company not only needs to evaluate their business strategies but also the political, economic, and cultural factors of their host country i.e. Singapore. It is not whether the business is in a market oriented status or not. The business norms in Singapore have been changing and are becoming more compatible with international codes and norms after a series of economic reforms (Barton, D., Newell, R. Wilson. G. 2002). Given the nature of the Singapore economy and the large potential of the market, doing business with Singapore requires a continuous process of learning, caution for instability, and flexibility to catch opportunities. In terms of gross margin, OSIM surpasses both Sanyo and Omron. Despite of the large market of Sanyo and Omron, OSIM was still performing expressively. Liquidity and Debt Ratios In financial analysis, the balance sheets of company reports conform to the financial ratios (see Appendix for the complete details of balance sheets of OSIM). The purpose of ratios is to find out how profitable the company is, we can calculate if company has enough liquid resources to pay its creditors, employees and finance charges. It is a useful to shareholders to find out their value of shares. Ratios are most powerful and simplest tool to evaluate companys performance and its validity (Riahi-Belkaoui, A 1998). Atril Mclaney (2004) stated that by calculating a relatively small number of ratios, it is often possible to build up a reasonably good picture of the position and performance of a business. Ratios help to highlight the financial strengths and weaknesses of a business, but they can not, by themselves, explain why certain strengths or weaknesses exist, or why certain changes occurred. Just by details investigation will find the reasons. Ratios can be grouped into certain categories; each of them identifies a particular aspect of financial performance or, position. In this part of the paper, well be considering the liquidity ratios and debt ratio of OSIM. Liquidity ratios show how quickly the company can meet its short-term obligations using its current assets (Riahi-Belkaoui, A 1998). The following ratios are needed to determine the status of liquidity of the firm under analysis: Current Ratio; and Quick Ratio Each of them are calculated for OSIM as follows: The current ratio shows the ability of the company to pay its liabilities, i.e. debts and payables during the period (Pike, R Neale, B 1999). It is expressed as: As an alternative to the use of the current ratio, which may include financial statement items that are not easily liquidated and have uncertain liquidation values, the quick ratio does not include inventory in the computation of liquidity (Pike, R Neale, B 1999). In formula: Figure 3. Summary of Liquidity and Debt Ratios OSIM Sanyo Omron Source: http://www.ft.com It is evident in the computations that OSIM was always in good position to meet its short-term debt for the years 2007, 2008 and 2009 compared to 2005 despite of the global crisis. This means that OSIM is always bale to meet their current liabilities using their current assets (cash, inventory, receivables) as compared to both Sanyo and Omron. The figures are not high so as to make the shareholders fear that the assets of the company are not working to grow the business, and not low so as to drive creditors away with respect to the level of risk present. Since quick ratios are perceived as a sign of the companys financial strength or weakness, the figures in the previous table shows the relative stability of the financial strength of OSIM. A higher number would indicate stronger financial performance, and a lower one means weaker performance. Apparently, the high financial leverage ratios of OSIM provide an implication that the organisation is solvent in the long-term. With this regard, the debt ratio shows the OSIMs position to meet its long-term obligation or liabilities. Debt ratios are dependent of the companys classification of long-term leases and other items as long-term debt (Pike, R Neale, B 1999). Pike, R Neale, B 1999, stated that this is the gauge with which the financial strength of a company is a sign of the ratio of capital that has been funded by liability, counting preference shares. A higher debt ratio (which means the company has low equity ratio) does not give the firms creditors the security they require from an organisation (Pike, R Neale, B 1999). The firm would, as a result, find difficulty in raising supplementary financial support coming from outside sources if the firm wishes to take such action. Therefore it reveals that the higher the debt ratio, the harder it is for the company to raise funds from the outside. Market Share For the recorded 2007-2009 business performance of OSIM Holdings Limited, the company generated a worldwide group turnover of around SGD 477 million. This is an expressive market share in global home health-care products business. In Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan which is OSIMs largest markets, their combined domestic sales accounted for 85.6 per cent. of their Groups revenues. In Singapore, IPS Brothers Enterprise Pte Ltd and Goh Joo Hin Pte Ltd market akin home health-care products under the brands of Oto and Lifestyle respectively (Osim International Ltd. 2009). In Hong Kong, National and Omron are OSIMs competitors. In Taiwan, there are many retailers in the home health-care products industry and OSIM do not consider any company as a major competitor to them (Osim International Ltd. 2009). Actually, the claim of OSIM is valid since there are no published statistics or official sources of information on companies engaged in the retail and distribution of home health-care products in their primary markets, thus, the company are unable to determine their market share. However, the company assumed that they are one of the leaders in Asia in this business based on 2 market surveys in 1999 which they had commissioned international survey firms, The Gallup Organisation and ACNielsen (China) Ltd (ACNielsen), to undertake to determine their market positions in Singapore and Hong Kong respectively. The Gallup Organisations survey revealed that in Singapore, OSIM is the number 1 brand for electronic home health-care products when compared to other brands like National, Omron, Oto and Lifestyle, in terms of the following (Osim International Ltd. 2009): brand awareness market share perceived image in terms of quality, trustworthiness, brand preference, technology, designs and features, range of products, customer service and value for money. On the other hand, the ACNielsens survey revealed that in Hong Kong, OSIM was also number 1 in terms of overall brand preference for massage chairs, foot reflexology rollers, pulse massagers and pulse monitors (Osim International Ltd. 2009). Actually, in the ACNielsens survey, OSIM was compared with brands like National, Oto, Sharp and Philips. SWOT Analysis With respect to the given information in the company website, the following presentation will show the SWOT analysis of OSIM. Actually, SWOT analysis can provide a framework for identifying and analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat. This can also provide an impetus to analyze a situation and develop suitable strategies and tactics, a basis for assessing core capabilities and competences. Moreover, this can provide the evidence for, and cultural key to change and a stimulus to participation in a group experience. Strengths Wide experience in apparels market as they have been in the business for almost 42 years now, their directors can consider their experience in operating venture as strength. Reasonable price offerings of products and services- since they able to keep their overheads low, this allows them to have better control of their prices. This is considered strength because naturally, people would look for a reasonably-priced place to stay in that equally do not sacrifice service and product quality. Already has developed a good reputation for value for money since they have been operating for great number of years, they already have built a name for themselves, attracting a number of loyal customers along the way. Good industry skills the directors of different divisions of OSIM are natural for the business that they ventured into, both being outgoing and friendly, the most important public relation skills that clients look for. Weaknesses Although, the company has seen much strength, OSIM also encompasses some weaknesses. One of its weaknesses is the declining confidence of some of its shareholders. Even though the group was successful, some of the shareholders are not confident due to the current crisis. The company should create ways to address this weakness. Another weakness of OSIM is their inability to have a system that will enhance their marketing and distribution processes. The advancement of technology nowadays is one of the weaknesses of OSIM. Although the company are now adopting different advance technologies, the room for improvement are still open. Thus, it is suggested for the group to have focus in their research and development department. Actually, the group was expressively dominating in the market of Singapore but with regards to the current global financial crisis, OSIM are dragged by the current condition of the country as seen in their financial ratios. Thus, another form of their weakness is their mutual bond to the economy of Singapore. However, if economic growth grows at a rate greater than inflation, then the total of business earnings should be dragged along as well. Opportunities To increase profitability in the face of increased demand for their business offerings this opportunity came from the social areas in the rise in the number of population and changes to consumer preferences. To better improve business performance due to the presence of more competitors, they have the opportunity to develop the business core competencies so that they can still get ahead of the game. To expand business coverage through excellent management and marketing activities, the OSIM could enlarge the business, not only increase the size of the physical facilities and improve offered amenities, but also to expand market scope, possibly to other countries. Threats Continued increase in the number of competitors. Increase in competition would mean tougher business development. Inability to cope up with modern developments this serves as a serious threat, as the competitors have shown that they have the capacity to include modern technology in their services and products offerings. Aggressive competitors as seen in the current environment of Singapore, there are numerous businesses that offer services and products similar to OSIM. This is, off the bat, the most aggressive competitor that the business has to face for the time being, aggressive with respect to the quality of product and services offerings. Porters Five Forces A Five-Force model (see Figure 4) was conducted in the context of the global cosmetic industry. Despite being a market leader, OSIM is not yet resting on its laurels of success, but instead, continuously innovating and developing their company in order to maintain what it has managed to achieve up to this time. Thus, they have constantly formulated competitive strategies in order to attain this. Forces outside the industry are significant primarily in a relative sense; since outside forces usually affect all firms in the industry, the key is found in the differing abilities of firms to deal with them. The most dominant strategic management paradigm in recent years is known as the strategies model (Fredrickson 1991). The state of competition in an industry, in this case the apparel industry, depends on five basic competitive forces, which will be here. The strength of the competitive forces in an industry determines the degree to which the inflow of investment occurs and drives the return to the free market level, and thus the ability of firms to sustain above-average returns. The underlying structure of an industry, reflected in the strength of the forces, should be distinguishable from the many short-run factors that can affect competition and profitability in a transient way (Porter 1998:3). For instance, variations in the economic environment over the business cycle manipulate the short-run productivity of the retailing industry, as can material deficiencies, strikes, and the like. Even though such factors may have strategic implications, the focal point of the analysis of industry structure is on categorising the basic, fundamental features of the industry rooted in its economics and technology that shape the arena in which competitive strategy must be set (Porter 1998). The five competitive forces suppliers, buyers, competitive rivalry among firms currently in the industry, product substitutes and potential entrants to the industry reveal the fact that the competition in the home health-care goes well further than the already existing business (Davies Lam 2001). Customers, suppliers, substitutes, and potential entrants are all competitors to firms in the industry and may be more or less prominent depending on the particular circumstances (Porter 1998). All five competitive forces mutually establish the amount of industry rivalry and productivity, and the most influential forces are prevailing and becoming decisive in terms of strategy formulation. In OSIMs case, even them who have a very well-built market leadership in the home health-care products industry where entrants have little or no threat will receive small returns on their profits if it has to face a superior quality and lower-cost alternative. Figure 4. Porters Five Forces Model Industry Competitors. In the global business industry, regulatory and technological changes are the main catalysts, making entrenched competitive structures obsolete and mandating the development of new products, new processes, new strategies, and new public policies toward the industry under analysis. Financial centres, in vigorous competition with each other, have undergone further regulatory change in their efforts to capture a greater share of international trade in financial services, even as common efforts at the regional and global level have tried to support safety and soundness and a reasonably level competitive playing field. Basically, there are numerous cosmetic players in the industry, included in the list is OSIM, who strive for market leadership in all their business aspects. As such, the level of industry competition is very stiff and very aggressive. Potential Entrants. Natural barriers to entry in the global apparel industry include the need for capital investment, human resources, and technology and the importance of economies of scale. It also includes the role of contracting costs avoided by a close relationship between the vendor and its client, which in turn is related to the avoidance of opportunistic behaviour by either party. The competitive structure of the industry therefore depends on the degree of potential competition. This represents an application of the contestable markets concept, which suggests that the existence of potential entrants causes existing players to act as if those entrants were already active in the market. Consequently, pricing margins, product quality, and the degree of innovation in this industry exhibits characteristics of intense competition even though the degree of market concentration is in fact quite high. Buyers. Home health-care products have a long historya history rich in product diversity, international scope, and, above all, continuous change and adaptation. These competitive changes have forced adaptations, and in general have improved the level and efficiency offer to clients, thereby increasing transactional volume. Coupled with these, the customers have become informed concerning clothing products that OSIM-like companies offer. They have required that service providers meet their very specific individual needs, therefore showing that clients to this industry have shaped what it is right now. This means, on an overall note, that buyers have a high influence on the workings of the global industry pertaining to home health-care products, as they have the ability to affect it. Suppliers. The suppliers to this industry are mainly the providers of technology and materials in home health-care firms use in the conduct of their businesses. There is an enormous variety of new hard and soft technologies at work within the said industry. Hard technologies include advances in telecommunications, computers, analytics, software tools, and video communications, which are enabling participants to have better information at lower cost; to integrate this information with thinking, communication, and analysis; and, finally, to use the resulting knowledge along with other technologies to distribute services to clients more efficiently, effectively, and economically. Soft technologies, or financial innovation things like, say, the use of derivative instruments such as interest rate and currency swaps often use these hard technologies to rethink the delivery of services. Out of these hard and soft technologies have come the securitisation and globalisation movements so oft en talked about in the press. From the above enumeration, it could be said that suppliers significantly affect the cosmetic industry through their tools of trade. Substitutes. There is a high level of substitutes for the healthy and lifestyle products industry, evidenced by the numerous numbers of major players in the global market. The cost to transfer to another beauty firm is also relatively low, so the substitution rate is pretty high. Conclusion The results of the analysis carried out on performance, financial and marketing indicated very significant effects on business sustainability, even amidst the threats of unrest. Therefore, we could conclude that the business strategies such financial and marketing could still be expected to improve business sustainability faster than average. The review of financial capabilities and resources towards business sustainability revealed very little inconsistencies regarding its strategies. This is coherent with its traditional inside-out approach. However, the need to reconcile both the inside-out and outside-in approaches becomes imperative now for marketing. Moreover, it can be said that OSIM is a company whose financial situation is stable and highly likely to improve in the years to follow. To sustain their development, the company should regularly assess the value of their portfolio of its business. They have to be positioned on fast-growing opportunities, whether geographically or by market segment through choosing to invest in businesses with long-term tail-wind profiles. If the current financial situation carries on consistently, OSIM would well achieve their vision of becoming the leader in their industry and a major player in each of their market segments and key geographical markets. The comparison of the past and present performance helped in bringing out pertinent bits of information which led to the conclusion that the Singapore offices adds value and contributes significantly to the progress of the firm as a whole. References: Atrill, P. McLaney, E. (2004). Financial Accounting for Decision Makers, 4th edn., Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. Ali, A. (1993). Decision-Making Style, Individualism and Attitudes toward Risk of Arab Executives, International Studies of Management Organisation, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 53+. Barton, D., Newell, R. Wilson. G. (2002). When Is a Good Time to Make Strategic Advances? during a Crisis, of Course. The McKinley Quarterly, pp. 77+ Daroca, F.P. Nourayi, M.M. (1996). Performance Evaluation and Measurement Issues, Journal of Managerial Issues, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 206+. Pike, R. Neale, B. (1999). Corporate Finance and Investment Decision and Strategies, 3rd edn., Pearson Education Limited, England. Riahi-Belkaoui, A. (1998). Financial Analysis and the Predictability of Important Economic Events, Quorum Books, Westport, Connecticut. Osim International Ltd. (2009) Company Report. Accessed January 12, 2010 from OSIM Ltd. (2010). About Us. Accessed January 12, 2010 from http://corporate.osim.com
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
True love is when a person has a deep, tender, ineffable feeling of affection and solicitude toward one other person. Even through difficult obstacles or changes in life, the strong feeling between the two persons should remain constant and last eternally. However, the novel, Replay, by Ken Grimwood, creates characters that are confused on the meaning of true love. Throughout the novel, the characters are constantly falling in love with many different people and are having many short term marriages as well. The protagonist of Replay, Jeff Winston, who was originally married to Linda, claims to fall deeply in love with Judy and Pamela. Secondly, another main character, Pamela Philips was married twice before she falls in love with Jeff. Besides the novel, people in real life such as celebrities have numerous marriages too. In addition, it is proven that a married couple would tend to get a divorce as they spend more time together. All of these examples support the fact that true love does not exist. There is no such thing as true love, because a people keep switching partners and their relationships are short term. In the novel, Replay, Jeff Winston was originally married to Linda in his first life. However, during his replays, he falls in love with many other women and forgets about his original wife, Linda. Throughout the novel, Jeff had encountered many women, and made love with almost all of them. However, there were 2 other women besides Linda, which he loves so much, he marries them. During his second replay, he was madly in love with Judy, and decides to marry her because he wanted to spend the rest of his life with her. The following quote shows JeffÃ¢â¬â¢s confession of love to Judy: Ã¢â¬Å"JudyÃ¢â¬ His voice broke. He cleared his throat and started again. Ã¢â¬Å"I just want you to knowÃ¢â¬ ¦how very much I have always loved you.Ã¢â¬ (pg. 102, Grimwood) This passage shows that Jeff feels that he strongly loves Judy for all of eternity. Moreover, during his final replays, he meets another replayer, Pamela, and falls in love with her. This passage shows how Jeff feels about Pamela: It had been over a year since heÃ¢â¬â¢d begun his fourth replay of his life, and all the hopefulness with which he had once anticipated sharing this cycle with someone he fully loved, someone whose experience and understanding matched his own, had disappeared.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Psychologist Kurt Lewin developed his leadership styles framework in the 1930s, and it provided the foundation of many of the approaches that followed afterwards. He argued that there are three major leadership styles:Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting their team members, even if their input would be useful. This can be appropriate when you need to make decisions quickly, when there's no need for team input, and when team agreement isn't necessary for a successful outcome. However, this style can be demoralizing, and it can lead to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decision-making process. They encourage creativity, and people are often highly engaged in projects and decisions. As a result, team members tend to have high job satisfaction and high productivity. This is not always an effective style to use, though, when you need to make a quick decision. Laissez-faire leader s give their team members a lot of freedom in how they do their work, and how they set their deadlines.They provide support with resources and advice if needed, but otherwise they don't get involved. This autonomy can lead to high job satisfaction, but it can be damaging if team members don't manage their time well, or if they don't have the knowledge, skills, or self motivation to do their work effectively. (Laissez-faire leadership can also occur when managers don't have control over their work and their people.) Lewin's framework is popular and useful, because it encourages managers to be less autocratic than they might instinctively be.The Blake-Mouton Managerial GridThe Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid was published in 1964, and it highlights the best leadership style to use, based on your concern for your people and your concern for production/tasks.With a people-oriented leadership style, you focus on organizing, supporting, and developing your team members. This participatory st yle encourages good teamwork and creative collaboration.With task-oriented leadership, you focus on getting the job done. You define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, and plan, organize, and monitor work.According to this model, the best leadership style to use is one that has both a high concern for people and a high concern for the task Ã¢â¬â it argues that you should aim for both, rather than trying to offset one against the other. Clearly, this is an important idea!The Hersey-Blanchard Situational LeadershipÃ ® TheoryFirst published in 1969, the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory argues that you need to use different leadership styles depending on the maturity of your team members. The model argues that with relatively immature individuals, you need a more directing approach, while with higher maturity people, you need a more participative or delegating leadership style.You can use this model in most business situations, regardless of whet her you want to build a new team or develop an existing one.Path-Goal TheoryYou may also have to think about what your team members want and need. This is where Path-Goal Theory Ã¢â¬â published in 1971 Ã¢â¬â is useful.For example, highly-capable people, who are assigned to a complex task, will need a different leadership approach from people with low ability, who are assigned to an ambiguous task. (The former will want a participative approach, while the latter need to be told what to do.)With Path-Goal Theory, you can identify the best leadership approach to use, based on your people's needs, the task that they're doing, and the environment that they're working in.Six Emotional Leadership StylesDaniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee detailed their Six Emotional Leadership Styles theory in their 2002 book, Ã¢â¬Å"Primal Leadership.Ã¢â¬ The theory highlights the strengths and weaknesses of six leadership styles that you can use Ã¢â¬â Visionary, Coaching, Affilia tive, Democratic, Pacesetting, and Commanding. It also shows how each style can affect the emotions of your team members.Flamholtz and Randle's Leadership Style MatrixFirst published in 2007, Flamholtz and Randle's Leadership Style Matrix shows you the best leadership style to use, based on how capable people are of working autonomously, and how creative or Ã¢â¬Å"programmableÃ¢â¬ the task is.The matrix is divided into four quadrants Ã¢â¬â each quadrant identifies two possible leadership styles that will be effective for a given situation, ranging from Ã¢â¬Å"autocratic/benevolent autocraticÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"consensus/laissez-faire.Ã¢â¬ Transformational LeadershipThese leadership style frameworks are all useful in different situations, however, in business, Ã¢â¬Å"transformational leadership Ã¢â¬ is often the most effective leadership style to use. (This was first published in 1978, and was then further developed in 1985.)Transformational leaders have integrity and high e motional intelligence . They motivate people with a shared vision of the future, and they communicate well. They're also typically self-aware , authentic , empathetic , and humble .Transformational leaders inspire their team members because they expect the best from everyone, and they hold themselves accountable for their actions. They set clear goals, and they have good conflict-resolution skills . This leads to high productivity and engagement.However, leadership is not a Ã¢â¬Å"one size fits allÃ¢â¬ thing; often, you must adapt your approach to fit the situation. This is why it's useful to develop a thorough understanding of other leadership frameworks and styles; after all,Ã the more approaches you're familiar with, the more flexible you can be.Specific Leadership StylesAs well as understanding the frameworks that you can use to be a more effective leader, and knowing what it takes to be a transformational leader, it's also useful to learn about more general leadership styl es, and the advantages and disadvantages of each one.Let's take a look at some other leadership styles that are interesting, but don't fit with any of the frameworks above.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Leadership and Management Ã¢â¬â Essay Example Leadership and Management Ã¢â¬â Paper Leadership and Management Ã¢â¬â Paper Student Name: Professor: Class Name: Date of Submission: Leadership and Management Ã¢â¬â Indira Gandhi Leadership and management are two most important aspects in any society or corporate setting. The two are essential if any organization or community is to perform its functions efficiently and head in the right direction. However, although the two are related, there lies a distinct difference between the two. Leadership is the process of influencing people socially. Here, one person is able to rally masses in order to accomplish a given goal. Leadership according to experts is intrinsic and ingrained in the character of a person. (Richard Pat, 37). The real meaning of leadership is the ability of the person in question to bring himself or herself down to the level of servertitude to a people. It is sacrificing for your people and making decisions with their best interests at heart. Some people argue that leaders are born as opposed to being molded by society. Leaders have followers as opposed to mangers that have subordinates. There has been a misconception that good leaders are born. Good leadership is a character that can be acquired with proper training. This is through the continuous processes of self-study, education, training, and experience. The ability to inspire oneÃ¢â¬â¢s followers into higher levels of teamwork requires certain skills and abilities that do not occur naturally but are acquired through the unending process of hard work and study. Management on the other hand is the act of organizing, controlling, planning and directing a given people to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system (Uma, 74). A manager is supposed to work in line with a set of well-defined objectives or goals. The act of management is mainly feature of institutions also known as systems. These systems could be industries and companies, education or religious institutions among others. Good managements define a successful company while poor management is the ultimate downfall of the same. Management involves the process of getting a group of people to act in a coordinated manner to achieve the set out goals. This is accomplished using the available resources efficiently and effectively. Although it is possible to have a pure manger in an organization, current corporate and social trends require the managers to have leadership qualities. A good leader is not only required to utilize the given resources efficiently in meeting the prescribed goals, but is also expected to inspire the people who serve under him into greatness. He or she is to be a role model where his interest is to encompass the betterment of the subordinates. When one gains the honor and respect of his team, he or she will be in a better position to meet his objectives since he will acquire the cooperation of the entire team. The world today has experienced sensational leaders. People who have moved masses and transformed nations. Other world leaders on the other hand have failed in leadership leading to the suffering and oppression of the masses that they lead. One great and phenomenal leadership icon is a woman by the name Indira Ghandi. Born in the year 1917, the Indian politician became the second woman to hold the office of prime minister where she served for three consecutive terms (Joseph, 93). Not surprisingly, she was the daughter and an only child of the first prime minister of India once it gained independence. To date she rests as the second longest serving female prime minister. She is a woman, rise above the dogmatic and discriminatory patterns that the world had about women and defied traditional rules. Rules that suggested that such domains like leadership were for the reserve of men. Indira Ghandi was a transformational leader (Peter, 77). This is the kind of leader who causes positive change in a people or social system. She was able to cause changes in the individuals whom she served and the entire social system. Through her leadership, many people were motivated, boost the morale and performance of most of the Indians and others who mainly reside in the third world nations. This was accomplished through a variety of mechanisms. She was able to identify and connect with the poor in society who at the time made up much of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s population. During her reign, she was responsible for boosting the economy of India to become one of the fastest growing economies of the world. Indira Gandhi did not enjoy the privileges experienced by many children since she was deprived of normal childhood. Her life drastically changed after a visit by Mohandas Gandhi who at the time was the pacifist leader of the Indian freedom movement. The leader converted Indira Gandhi together with her parents. This later led to her parentÃ¢â¬â¢s imprisonment when she was only four years old because of their radical activities. This jailing would later become frequent thereby depriving her a normal childhood. The constant insecurities of her childhood played a pivotal role in shaping her into the confident leader she was. The experiences hardened her developing a deep resolution of not getting hurt as her mother had been. Her childhood games related to her future wars with the British government. In one instance, when she was only eleven years old, she played a mock money brigade similar to the epic Indian story Ramayana. In this brigade, she would enact a war against the British. Her ascension into such a high office of that of a prime minister was of significant inspiration to the women of India and the rest of the world at a time when women were still fighting to find an equal place in the society. This led her to becoming a symbol of success to the women and the third world. Indira Gandhi style of leadership was mostly autocratic. This style of leadership involves one person domineering the decision-making processes . Indira Gandhi is considered an autocratic leader since she made decisions based on her own ideas and judgments with little consideration of the advice offered by others. This led to her having many adversaries during her political tenure. This style of leadership was exceptionally beneficial during her tenure because during her time, most of the decisions needed to be deliberated on quickly. Her autocratic style enabled her to meet deadlines and have project finished. Indira Gandhi believed in hard leadership styles as opposed to Sonia Gandhi who mainly employed soft leadership styles. Her style of leadership is mostly blamed for her final assassination. Her hard leadership style was always about placing more faith on performance than on the people running the government. This is in contrast to Sonia GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s soft leadership styles where she placed more emphasis on the issues affecting the people than on performance. Indira Gandhi also believed in both transformational and transactional leadership style as opposed to Sonia GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s transformational leadership style. The time prevailing IndiraÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership called for more hardened leadership styles as opposed to the current times, which call upon more soft approaches in facing the current issues. although Sonia seems soft on the outside, her actions indicate that she is a strong woman who makes tough decisions. This she does with more concern for the people she serves. The leadership styles of both women were very relevant in accordance with the times in which they served. SoniaÃ¢â¬â¢s soft leadership is particularly effective in solving the corruption issues affecting the people of India. She is a cool thinker who fights corruption on all fronts. She is quick in deliberating on decisions pertaining to corruption passing judgment to people irrespective of their party affiliations. Her leadership style is mainly effective in the coalition government she serves in, which calls upon more of a balancing act. Although critics have a lot to say about her iron rule and disregard for democracy, people in the whole agree that she did a lot for her country. The prime minister of the term was quick to defend the interests of the people of her country (Shakuntala, 75). In 1971, India experienced a problem that threatened to cripple its struggling economy. The government of Pakistan sidelined the people of the populated East of Pakistan and therefore treated them unjustly and violently. The widespread atrocities resulted to people fleeing Pakistan and entering India as refugees. Within a short time, there was an influx of refugees in India. This caused financial instability and hardship in the country. Indira waged a war against Pakistan, emerging victorious. Her decision to go to war with Pakistani was not in favor with many people especially the west. The United States, which was in support of Pakistan, severed its relations with India but this did not shake IndiraÃ¢â¬â¢s stand. At the end, her decisions, as analysts say, helped Pakistan stabilize politically and economically (Morgen, 62) Another strong character that helped Indira change India in her era is that she believed in going beyond the norms. She went beyond the common order and went ahead to design creative ways of doing this. She was what can be called, a revolutionary leader (Peter, 90) A revolutionary leader by definition is a leader who causes a sudden and major positive impact on humanity. The best argument in support of this is what came to be known as the Ã¢â¬ËGreen RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢ in India. The populous country had been struggling with chronic food shortages since its independence. Through Indira Ghandi, the same country became a major exporter of wheat, rice, cotton and milk because there was a surplus in production. Ghandi put her foot firmly on the ground and declared that her country was no longer going to rely on food aid from The United States of America. This was, largely due to her hate for the then American president, Richard Nixon. Either way she was able to lead India to start exporting food rather than importing. She then moved on to diversify the crop production in the country hence exporting a greater variety of goods (Peter 89). The white revolution was a name coined for the expansion in milk production in the country. The white revolution led to better health as cases of severe malnutrition could now be stopped. The tough times that Indira had led her to adopt a rather autocratic leadership style in governing the country. This according to leadership and management theories is whereby a leader makes all the decisions without consulting other people. The leader does not and cannot entertain any suggestions from subordinates. This leadership style led to her loosing popularity in the highly democratic country. In 1967, Indira authorized the development of nuclear weapons in India. This was in response to nuclear tests that had been conducted by China. According to Indira China was trying to intimidate India. In 1974, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s first nuclear test was launched. This was met with protests from Pakistan. This time round Pakistan decided that it was India that was trying to intimidate them with nuclear weapons. Although this move did not augur very well with other countries, no one condemned her (Gopal, 88) At one time India was experiencing a lot of political unrest due to a ruling by the high court, the woman of iron rule was said to have rallied the president of the time to de emergency to declare a state of emergency. She declared the arrest of those participating in the demonstrations and managed to restore order in the country. As can be seen, her autocratic style led to a lot of change in the country. This style as academicians say can be successful if the leader in question motivates the people and leads them directly towards the goal. Indira Ghandi did this (Ernest, 67). However, there is a dark side to every person. IndiraÃ¢â¬â¢s rule was characterized by some rather inhuman actions. After the state of emergency was declared, Ghandi coerced the president to pass some motions without them being debated in parliament. One such motion was to allow her to rule without decree. Her rule saw the police given the power to arrest and imprison protesters without trial. Communication was highly censored and media freedom curtailed. This even saw the communications minister resign due to frustration by GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s government. Under her supervision, the government conducted a cleanup of the slums that left thousands of people homeless and hundreds killed. This move made the people of India bitter and unforgiving towards the government. In the assessment of her strengths and weaknesses, what mostly stands out is her growth from low key and local personality to that of international eminence. This was made possible by her ability to evoke strong feelings on her democratic ideals. This goes to expound further on her leadership abilities. One of the strong leadership qualities was her affinity with the masses. For instance, when she spoke of Ã¢â¬Å"GaribiÃ¢â¬ , she was criticed at first if she had ever experienced Ã¢â¬Å"GaribiÃ¢â¬ . This criticism is unfounded because one does not necessarily need to have undergone through poverty to sympathize with those undergoing through such hardships. This only requires a down to earth heart and motherly love to comprehend the hardships of poverty or the lack of basic amenities in life. Her sentiments to those in poverty made an appeal to the millions in poverty and in the process winning their hearts. She was able to establish a good rapport with the masse suffering in the remotest parts of the country. Her ability to connect with the grieving millions won her laurels to the extent of amazing her critics and opponents in her love for them. Commoners, even one particular peasant who worked as a Ã¢â¬Å"BhangiÃ¢â¬ could identify her as their savior and the protector of their rights. This could be identified as her greatest strength and achievement in life. Her leadership strengths enabled her to run a great country such as India with such a population, vast territory and diverse culture in a plausible way. To attain such a fete requires a high degree of management skills coupled with exemplary leadership attributes. All this she accomplished in the presence of numerous irritants in her functioning and blamed for most of the problems bedeviling the nation. Her great vision and leadership skills brought about many of the opportunities that led to the realization of most of the dreams and visions. Indira Gandhi is credited with many exemplary performances even in the midst of her weaknesses. One of her weaknesses is inherently engraved in her autocratic form of leadership. Gandhi is blamed for being intolerant to dissent and rarely taking advices from other people. Every leader is bound to have an erred perspective or thought of a given issue. This is why careful consultation with other professionals before deliberating on any major issue is important in any effective leadership. After careful consultation, one is bound to have a more informed view on a particular subject. Prominent officials like Tandon, describe Gandhi as shy, diffident and uncomfortable at sitting through detailed arguments. She is said to have loathed and uncooperative during discussions that involved complex issues. This highly works against any leader especially if the persons one is avoiding are on your side. Indira Gandhi is considered to have been very proud and reserved and was not at easy at conversing with junior officers or persons who were not in close contact with her. During her tenure, cabinet meetings were rarely convened because she did not esteem such meetings to be of high importance. Another flaw attributed to Indira Gandhi was that she believed the fight for power justified any of the means used in the fight. This belief is very dangerous especially when one is fighting his or her very own fellow citizens. This also goes a long way in revealing the desire and obsession for power that Indira Gandhi had. Although every leader is supposed to have a passion for the success of his team or ideologies, obsession is poisonous and often leads to ones detriment. The most ridiculous and perhaps inhuman rule passed under her tenure was the family planning law that was meant to manage IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s rapidly expanding population. The law saw men being forced to undergo vasectomy. The later was done forcibly, often poorly, and unprofessionally. One may argue that her weaknesses overshadow her strengths but again, different situations call for a different approach( Peter, 2000) Looking at a great leader like Nelson Mandela who led South Africa across the long road to apartheid, we may say that Indira could have achieved what she did in a less ingenious way. Nelson Mandela was also a revolutionary leader. He led South Africa to independence against white rule. A great believer in Democracy, the iconic leader remains hailed as one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest leaders. He was imprisoned for most of his political life yet he still preached peace upon release (Nelson, 54). Nelson employed tact and democracy in leading the highly prosperous country. This leaves us with something to think about. Could Indira have achieved the much she did in a different way? What could have been differently if she had adapted a more democratic leadership style like Nelson Mandela? Maybe, she could not have been imprisoned after being unseated out of power. If so, then maybe India would not be where it is today. Bibliography Richard L.D., Patricia G.L., 2007. The leadership experience. 4th ed. New York: Cengage Learning. Joseph C.R., 1993. Leadership for the twenty-first century. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group. Peter G.N. 2009. Leadership: Theory and Practice. 5th ed. New York: SAGE publishers. Shakuntala .M., 1995. Indira Ghandi. New York: Concept publishers. Gopal .D., 1974. Indira Ghandi. New York: Thompson press. Uma .V., 1974. Indira Ghandi: revolution in restraint. New York: Vikas publishers. Nelson M., 1990. The struggle is my life. Pakistan: Popular Prakashan. Peter F., 2000. Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York: Taylor Francis. Morgen W., 2004. Management: the basics. New York: Routledge. Ernest D., 1969. Management: theory and practice 2nd ed. New York: Bookstore Rex. .
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
A Separate Peace Grace UnderhillMrs. MatoneEnglish 9H-F3 October 2013In a Separate Peace, John Knowles suggests that Devon is a microcosm of the world at that time. a microcosm is a smaller version of a larger world. For example, John Knowles suggests this is through the boys jumping off the tree, which was sometimes used a form of training for the war. In addition, the boys at Devon have enemies just as there are in war. Finally, the ultimate goal in war is peace, which the boys search for throughout the book.To begin with, jumping out of a high tree is a form of training for the upperclassmen, the seniors. Gene explains this type of training on page 15 as "The class above, seniors were caught up in a physical hardening regimen, which included jumping from this tree." In the beginning of the book Gene and Finny creates a club that members would jump from this tree every night, the Super Suicide Society of the Summer Session.In this club, every night the members woud meet to jump out of the tree. To be on this club you had to jump from the tree and the leaders, Gene and Finny, would jump first. Also, Finny refers back to jumping out of the tree as a form of training when he was talking to Mr. Prud'homme on page 22 "The real reason, sir, was that we just had to jump out of that tree We had to do that naturally because we're all getting ready for the war."Another way Devon is a microcosm is just like there are enemies in war, there are many enemies at Devon. These enemies aren't all between two different people, a multitude of them are between people and themselves. One example of...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Judicial Precedents - Essay Example However, this is not binding on cases of Federal Courts, or by Courts of other States or country. The principle of stare decisis can be split into two parts. The first is the rule that a decision made by a higher court is a binding precedent, which a lower court cannot overrule. The second dictum is that a court should not upset its own precedents unless there is valid reason to do so. This needs to be motivated by principles from similar and lower courts. Under English legal system, judges are not justified to make their own decisions about the development, or interpretations of law. They may, or may not be held by a ruling made in a previous case. Two facts are important in finding out whether a precedent is binding: One of the main disadvantages of the use of precedents is that there is no mental exercise on the part of judiciary and it may not do the best brand of justice that could be rendered in a specific case. When a jury takes a decision based on previous case ruling, it has not exercised its own discretionary and discriminative powers, and, in a way has just copied its predecessor by way of issue of legal judgment. Whether there are sufficient reasons to believe that both the cases are similar for a common ruling is another matter, to be tried by the Court of Appeal or any other competent legal body. Precedent has a very important role in the common law. It ensures firmness, uniformity, logical sequence and expansion of the law. At the same time, it can be rigid and complex - what is "the law" on a subject may be very difficult to find or to state as it is often spread across many cases with varying degrees of intricacies. The law is also easier to find and state and is rationally prospective rather than based on the chance event of litigation, which may give rise to laws based on extreme or unusual situations, or erratically argued cases. Precedent is dependent upon written record of cases: Precede means that the judges have to place before consideration before granting verdict, the full accounts of the case history and other relating matters to the subject. Therefore, it could be argued that, in the absence of such matters and documents, the order of precedent may not be established. The second dictum is that a court should not upset its own precedents therefore, records are a sine quo non, which must be present to enforce legal pronouncements. Necessary documentary evidence may be needed before precedents could be established. Before the concept of precedent lays down previous similar decision, it
Friday, November 1, 2019
Maos Cult of Personality - Essay Example The following discussion will be concentric upon the cult of personality surrounding Mao Tse Tung and the means by which this cult of personality was able to assist the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China, and specifically the Chinese Communist Party, in solidifying their grip on power during the period of the Cultural Revolution (approximately 1966 to 1976). Further, it is the distinct hope of this student that the following analysis will be beneficial in discussing how the Cultural Revolution was able to take place and the means by which identity was formulated through this particular cult of personality. As a means of framing this particular issue, it must be understood that Mao Tse TungÃ¢â¬â¢s cult of personality was not something that was evident from the time he came into power as the Chairmen of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China. Although doubtless revered within the Communist Party, and amongst the people of China, there did not exist a mechanism or state-sponsored cult of personality for the leader up until the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. Essentially, this cult of personality was born out of a direct need. As a direct result of the Great Leap Forward, Chinese industry, the row, and communist identity had been significantly reduced (MÃ ¡rquez, 2010). Whereas the Great Leap Forward had been designed as a means of rapidly transforming the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China into a modern industrialized society, the ultimate end result of this failed policy was mass starvation, economic difficulty, and disastrous collectivized nation that failed to produce the requir ed quotas of goods that leadership demanded. From the information that is thus far been provided, it is clear and apparent that the cult of personality exhibited around Chairman Mao was much more than a lust and desire for emulation and hero worship. Although it is doubtless true that the overall level of power that Chairman Mao, and those within Chinese leadership, exhibited served as a means of corrupting the ultimate message that they hoped to provide to the people, the true nature of Mao cult of personality that has been the focus of this particular analysis is in attempting to reestablish the legitimacy and trust of the people after the horrendous failures that were exhibited in terms of the great leap forward other failed policies of development during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Furthermore, it should also be understood that even though the cult of personality which has been the focus of this brief essay was intended to engage each and every stakeholder within China, the specific focus that it had was on the youth. This was of course done in the understanding that the youth of the nation were those that were most likely to carry on the communist struggle and encourage older individuals to have faith in the process and to promote the ideology and approach that Chairman Mao most wish to have affected. Without the participation and engagement of the youth, is doubtful that the Cultural Revolution, or indeed the cult of personality, could ever have become as powerful determinants in Chinese history as they have become. Ã