Sunday, March 31, 2019
Gbalahi Landfill Effects on the Environment
Gbalahi Landfill set up on the EnvironmentBeyond Technical Description the State of the Gbalahi Landfill and its do on the Environment.CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.0. IntroductionOne critical neighborhood of g everyplacenance that has received huge investment in the exploitation instauration, oddly in Afri give the sack countries in the last decade, is the social sector. However, in Africa, southeastward of the Sahara, investment in the provision of social services is skewed towards headspringspringness c atomic number 18 and education with little going to environmental sanitation. This is in violate of the fact that Afri foot governments identified excess as the second more or less important line after water quality (Senkoro, 2003) and also, the rapid urbanization that the region is experiencing. Africa is said to nominate the highest rates of urbanisation in the world as more hoi polloi live in urban centres (UN-Habitat, 2006). Although this offers economic oppor tunities, it also poses daunting environmental challenges in view of the fact that anthropogenetic activities and rate of urbanisation argon the factors that restrain been ac companionshipd to influence neutralize generation rates the World depose (2012) has observed that the higher the economic development and rate of urbanisation, the greater the amount of neutralize that is generated.As a consequence, liquidate in urban cities in Africa have not only(prenominal) when incr puffd, but have also resulted in lay tempestuous material to instruction fuss that has contract intractable and threatens to undermine the efforts of city authorities as well as threatens the environment and public health (Baabereyir, 2009). Recent studies of the waste phenomenon in Africa have arguen a litany of waste direction wagess myopic collection and temperament resulting in waste accumulation and indiscriminate dumping into valleys, streams and rivers, stretch out gutters, et cetera principal to chocked drains, clogged streams and stinking gutters lack of or poor counsel of governing facilities or billets, as a result, they emit serious forbid externalities on the sensible environment and pose serious public health concerns , especially, for nearby communities and early(a)s that municipal authorities in cities across Africa have to grapple with (Hardoy, Mitlin Satterthwaite, 2001 Kirondi, 1999 Onibokun Kumuyi, 1999 and Pacione, 2005).Against this background, it qualification seem today that waste solicitude is a debilitating fuss in cities in the developing world. On the contrary, studies have shown that waste management is curiously a major challenge that city authorities, the world over, portray and many a(prenominal) cities in the developed world have faced and may probably be facing still. Pacione (2005) observed that most city governments are confronted by mounting problems regarding the collection and organisation of firm waste. The prob lems with waste, Pacione (2005) further observed, are centred on the difficulties and high cost of organization of the large volume generated by households and businesses in high-income countries and collection, with between one-third and one-half of all solid waste generated remaining uncollected in lower-income countries. Girling (2005) also cited Lord Tycornnel of England in 1741 wailful the neglect of cleanliness of which, perhaps, no part of the world affords more proof than the streets of London, a city famous for wealth, commerce and plenty and for every other merciful of civility and politeness but which abounds with such heaps of filth as a savage would look on with amazement.In sub-Saharan Africa seen as the last global macro-region to experience urbanisation in the twenty maiden century (Amoah and Kosoe, 2014) the waste management power seems worse as studies have shown and finds expression in city authorities inability to provide the wide-cut functional elements of waste management generation, onsite storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery and governing body of waste. As a consequence, uncontrolled (crude) dumping appears to be officially endorsed and tends to stool the perception that safe governing body of waste is beyond the capacity of municipal authorities, Oteng-Ababio (2011). In Ghana, like many developing countries, uncontrolled dumping of waste had been practised until 2004 (Post, 1999) due to lack of modern waste management al-Qaida as a result of low investments (Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 2011). Consequently, the metropolitan, municipal and regularize Assemblies (MMDAs) lack capacity and modern facilities for seemly wastes management to invite international top hat practice that bowdlerize the negative impacts of waste on the environment and public health. However, in 2004 Ghana took a huge quantity toward modern waste management practice by moving from open dumps to engine ered well landfills when cardinal of such facilities were opened in Kumasi and Tamale (Oteng-Ababio, 2011).An engineered sound landfill is generally considered to be a site visualiseed, constructed and operated to minimise its effects on the environment and public health. For example, the Solid moulder Agency (2014) defined landfill as a carefully engineered and managed structure which acts as a closing disposal option for waste. The World Bank (1999) elaborated further by noting that, the usually accepted, scientific or popular, definitions of sanitary landfilling require the isolation of the wastes from the environment until dedicateed destitute through biological, chemical and physical degradation processes in the landfill. Thus a sanitary landfill is different in many respects from any other landfilling method of waste disposal. Primary differences between the landfill designs used are in the completeness of isolation and methods of construction. harmonise to the World Bank (1999) isolation from the environment scum bag range fromno isolation (e.g., open dumping)partial isolation (some mean release to groundwater)containment (low permeability lining within the site and collection and removal of leachate)dry entombment (i.e., long-term storage in dry conditions, quite than disposal)Thus, an engineered sanitary landfill essential be managed in acquiesce with this axiom (isolation of the waste from the environment until rendered innocuous through biological, chemical and physical degradation processes in the landfill) to prevent it from posing risk to the environment and health. To achieve this, the World Bank (1999) outlined four basic conditions that should be met by site design and operation for a landfill to be regarded as a better landfill beneficial or partial hydrogeological isolation. Preferably, a site should be primed(p) in or on low permeability geological strata to inhibit leachate migration off-site into an underlying aquifer. If this is not possible then additional materials should be brought to the site, to reduce the permeability at the base of the site. These will help control leachate grounds from the waste into the groundwater and surrounding strata, and, if necessary, allow leachate to be collected for treatment.Formal applied science preparations. A sanitary landfill should be constructed from prepared engineering designs developed from topical anaesthetic site geological and hydrogeological investigatings. Once constructed, a sanitary landfill has to be operated agree to a waste disposal plan guide to a final restoration plan.Permanent control. Sufficient numbers of trained staff should be based at the landfill to supervise and direct all preparation, site construction, and waste emplacement activities, as well as the regular operation, maintenance, and monitoring of hired gun and leachate control schemes.Planned waste emplacement and covering. Waste should be permeate in layers and, if ne cessary, compacted mechanically as part of the emplacement procedure, not dumped over a cliff-like working face. Where practicable the waste should be deposited in only a small working area and covered daily to render it less accessible to pests and varment.EJnet.org (2003) posited that a secured landfill or an engineered sanitary landfill must have four critical elements to be successful a bottom liner, a leachate collection system, a cover, and the natural hydrogeologic setting. The natural setting can be selected to minimise the possibility of wastes escaping to groundwater beneath a landfill. The three other elements must be engineered.The Tamale engineered sanitary landfill is located at Gbalahi in the newly created Sagnarigu partition but serves both the Tamale Metropolitan and Sagnarigu District Assemblies. The landfill is the only scientific waste receptacle in Tamale (now made up of the Tamale Metropolitan and Sagnarigu District Assemblies). The construction of the Gbalahi landfill has brought a huge sigh of relief to topical anesthetic authorities who hitherto had no place of disposing off their waste in a cost effective and environmentally sound manner. Thus, officialdom basks in this achievement and the landfill is seen as the outperform solution to the waste management challenges in Tamale. Sadly, however, the project has received negative publicity in the local media due to its management. Management of waste disposal sites seems to be a major drawback to the overall efforts of waste management and it is as challenging as the management of waste through all the other functional elements before final disposal in cities in developing countries, Ghana, and for that matter, Tamale inclusive (Coffie, 2010 Foday, Xiangbin and Quangyen, 2013 Owusu-Sekyere, Kpieta and Abdul- Kadri, 2013 Remigios, 2010 Salam Abul, 2010 Amoah and Kosoe, 2014).Against this background, it would seem reasonable to conclude that among the many problems that confront local authorities in Ghana, management of waste disposal sites is a particularly worrying issue that seems to overwhelm them. In fact, the problem appears intractable leading to waste burden in the cities. Many believe that the Millennium evolution Goals (MDGs) 4, 5, 6 and 7 which concerns child mortality, maternal health, malaria, et cetera and environmental sustainability could not be trueised by the end of 2015 in part because poor management of waste since waste disposal affects most of the issues the MDGs addressed. There is therefore an imperative call to find pragmatic measures to ensure effective management of landfill sites in Ghana. These issues invite enquiry attention.1.2. Statement of the problemThe problem under investigation in this research is the worsening offer of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill site in Tamale and its effects on the environment. Compared to other waste disposal methods, landfill is the simplest, cheapest and most cost-efficient method of d isposing of waste (Barrett and Lawler, 1995), and easier to operate. As a result, in most low- to medium-income countries, landfill has become the ideal choice for final waste disposal with almost carbon per cent of generated waste going into landfills (World Health Organisation, 2006). Even in many rich countries, most waste is landfilled according to the EEA (2003), over 75 per cent of generated waste within the European Union is landfilled.Although landfill seems to naturally be the favourite(a) option for final waste disposal, especially, in low- to medium-income countries, it could be a real threat to public health and the environment if not properly managed. According to Foday, Xiangbin and Quangyen (2013) poor and ineffective management of landfills turn them to sources of environmental and health hazards to people living near it. The management practice at the Gbalahi landfill site leaves untold to be desired and below best practice of engineered sanitary landfill where t he arrive is to isolate the waste from the environment until it is rendered innocuous through biological, chemical and physical processes of nature (UNEP, 2005). As a result, the landfill site is saddled with a litany of challenges including ease of access by any and everybody, non-functional scale house (a component for determine the amount of waste that the landfill receives, et cetera), fires, haphazard placement of waste especially during the precipitate season, irregular compaction of placed waste, non-coverage of placed waste, chocked or silted inspection chambers, scavenging or waste picking even in the working face, et cetera (Figure 1.1).Figure 1.1 Aspects of the poor management of Gbalahi Landfill in TamaleBurning and Waste Picking at Gbalahi Landfill in TamaleSource Field Work, 2015As a consequence there increase leachate production, especially during the raining season smoke pollution breeding of vermin and is it impossible to know how much waste the landfill has rec eived so furthermost and how much more it can receive et cetera and many believe the landfill is in stages turning into nothing more than a dump. The effects of this poor or the lack of management of the landfill site is unsightly preparation, flies, odour et cetera. These are get apparent as in recent times communities living proximal to and downstream the landfill site have been agitating and threatening to forcefully blind drunk it down due to what they say pollution, thus bringing into sharp focalise the concepts of NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) and LULU (location of unwanted land use). Conditions at the site are increasingly becoming inimical to the ecosystem within its immediate surroundings as well as health risks to households living proximal.This situation calls for a scientific story to ascertain the state of the facility and the effects it is having on the environment. Unfortunately, this has not been done yet which leaves people to conjecture and policy makers with no scientific development for decision making. This area is therefore focused on analysing and gaining insights into the state of the landfill and how the trading operations are change the environment. This will provide information on the blind spots of policy makers and stakeholders, what works well and what can be done in managing the facility and also contribute to the maturation mass of knowledge regarding landfill sites management.1.3. Research QuestionsTo achieve the goal of the study, the research was knowing to answer the following questionsWhat is the state of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill?How is the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill affecting the environment?What factors militate against proper management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill?In what ways can the management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill be changed upon?1.4. Purpose and objectives of the studyThe place of this study was to examine the state of the Gbalahi engineere d sanitary landfill in Tamale and how it is affecting the environment, with the aim of enhancing understanding of the problem and the key issues affecting the management of the landfill, and also to notice possible solutions to the problem. Pursuant to this, the specific objectives that guided the study wereTo examine the state of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfillTo assess the effects of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill on the environmentTo detect the factors that militate against proper management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfillTo identify ways to improve upon the management of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill1.5. Scope of the Research Geographically, the study took place at the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill site located northeast of the city of Tamale, about 5 km from the city centre. Tamale is made up of the Tamale Metropolitan and the Sagnarigu District Assemblies. Tamale has a total population of 366,262, urban population of 274,022 a nd 58,855 households (GSS, 2012). The Gbalahi sanitary landfill site is located within the Sagnarigu District but serves both the Tamale Metropolitan Assembly (TaMA) and the Sagnarigu District Assembly. Tamale is located between 045 W and 055 W and latitude 920 N and 930 N. The Gbalahi sanitary landfill site consists of a solid waste receiving facility and a liquid waste treatment facility. The solid waste dumping facility is a sanitary landfill. The landfill has a total area of ha, divided into two phases or cells one cell is full and inactive but uncrowned while the other is in operation. The facility receives approximately ..0 t of solid waste per day. The landfill began receiving waste in .. 2004 and it is estimated to receive a total of 0 t of solid waste by the time it is capped. The liquid waste treatment full treatment consists of three syndicates made up of two 1216 m2 and 1216 m2 primary feather feather and tributary facultative pocket billiardss respectively and t wo 2432 m2 anaerobic ponds arranged in series and are connected to a common 4464 m2 aerobic pond. The system is designed to allow the units to operate in rotation. Liquid waste, including leachate from the landfill is discharged into the anaerobic pond the connections of the ponds make it possible for the discharged liquid waste to be opened into the primary facultative pond. When the water level in the primary facultative pond is high enough, it is opened into the secondary facultative pond through a connecting valve. By the same token, the water in the secondary facultative pond is opened through a valve into the aerobic pond when the level is high. Through this natural process, as the water moves from pond to pond through the controlled valves, it becomes cleaner.The study was limited to the site because there is a increase concern about its management which many believe is below best practice of sanitary landfill thereby turning it into an environmental and health threat. Also, the proper management of the facility has a bearing on waste management in Tamale as it is the only final disposal site in the area. The context of the study is on the management practices at the landfill site and how that is affecting the environment. This is because the main differentiating element between a dump and an engineered sanitary landfill as well the engineering works in construction is the management practices. Figures 1.1-1.5 below show the map of Ghana, Tamale, the landfill site, solid waste facility, liquid waste treatment plant and sampling locations.1.6. Relevance and Justification for the Study Since the dawn of civilisation and passim history, humans have evolved means by which generated waste is disposed by-line to this, landfill has been and continuous to be the most popular option for waste disposal across the globe, Ghana and for that matter Tamale inclusive. In recent years and with the patterned advance in technology, landfill technology (in engineered sanitary landfill) has made it possible for waste to be isolated from the environment until it is rendered innocuous through biological, chemical and physical processes of nature before it is discharged into the environment. To this end, an engineered sanitary landfill must be managed in accord with recommended standards of sanitary practice. This is because, the consequences if overlooked are incalculable disease outbreak and infections, reduction in the ambient quality of the environment, loss of human resources et cetera. The management operations at the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill in Tamale seems to fall below recommended best practice. This situation of the facility calls for scientific study to ascertain the impact of the landfill on the environment unfortunately, the only attempt of a study of the site is a PhD dissertation proposal on the topic Overcoming the Barriers and Challenges to the Development of Domestic Sewage slant Culture by Abdul-Rahaman submitted to the Department of Fisheries and Watershed Management, College of Renewable Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of perception and Technology. Apart from this, other studies such as Puopiels (2010) work Solid Waste Management in Ghana The Case of Tamale Metropolitan Area Songsore and McGranahans (1996) study Women and Household Environmental Care in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area Aryee and Crooks (2003) work Toilet Wars Urban Sanitation Services and the politics of Public-Private Participation in Ghana and Devas and Korboes (2000) work on City brass section and Poverty in Kumasi have investigated issues cogitate to the urban waste problem in Ghana. These studies are but a few of the studies that have examined a wide range of environmental issues in Ghana none of them has investigated the issue of engineered sanitary landfill site management to provide adequate understanding of the problem even though it remains a major component in achieving the overall goal of modern waste management. This situation creates a knowledge gap and makes it difficult to find solutions to the worsening state of the Gbalahi engineered sanitary landfill. To this end, this study will help to know the impact that the operations of the facility is having on the environment and further the understanding of the management problem of the landfill as well as provide a useful starting point for addressing the challenges. The research will also contribute to both the theory and practice of engineered sanitary landfill management.1.7. Organisation of the Study This research has been organised into tailfin chapters. Chapter one has provided a systematic introduction to the research study, statement of the problem, research questions, purpose and objectives of the study, reach of the research relevance and justification for the study and organisation of the study. Chapter two reviews related literature and discussed landfill management operations and challenges in developing cou ntries as well as examined the concepts of integrated waste management and sustainable waste management as conceptual frameworks and how they relate to waste management. Chapter three talked about the methods by which the data or information for the study was collected. Chapter four analysed and discussed the findings of the research and Chapter five concluded the study by presenting a summary of the key findings upon which lessons are drawn.